Silver Folding Antique Binoculars Vintage II Ship Royal Navy World War Old Retro • EUR 153,82 (2024)

Vedi Dettagli su eBaydisponible su

EUR 153,82 Compralo Subito o Proposta d'acquisto, EUR 29,57 Spedizione, 30-Giorno Restituzione, Garanzia cliente eBay

Venditore: lasvegasormonaco ✉️ (3.785) 99.6%, Luogo in cui si trova l'oggetto: Manchester, Take a look at my other items, GB, Spedizione verso: WORLDWIDE, Numero oggetto: 266897684035 Silver Folding Antique Binoculars Vintage II Ship Royal Navy World War Old Retro. Coat of arms as Prince of Wales (1958–2022). Princess Lilibet of Sussex. Prince Archie of Sussex. The duch*ess of Sussex. The Duke of Sussex. Prince Louis of Wales. Princess Charlotte of Wales. Titles and styles. Folding Binoculars Royal Nay These Silver Plated Folding Binoculars come with a Leather Case They have the words "Made for the Royal Navy" "London 1917" with a Ship Logo Just twist the handle to open them and press the top to fold them down The dimensions are 11cm x 8 cm x 2.3 cm or 4.3" x 3.1" x 1" They weight 255 grams 9 ounces In Very Good Condition All My Auctions Start at a Penny...With No Reserve..If your the only bidder you win it for 1p....Grab a Bargain!!!! Sorry about the poor quality photos. They don't do the coin justice. A lot of my buyers tell me the coin looks better in real life than in my photos A wonderful item for anyone who likes The Binoculars It would be a super addition to any collection, excellent display, practical piece or authentic period prop. Comes from a pet and smoke free home Sorry about the poor quality photos. They don't do the item justice which looks a lot better in real life All my Auctions Bidding starts a a penny with no reserve... Click Here to Check out my Other Antique Items & Coins Bid with Confidence - Check My 100% Positive Feedback from over 900 Satisfied Customers I have over 10 years of Ebay Selling Experience - So Why Not Treat Yourself? I have got married recently and need to raise funds to meet the costs also we are planning to move into a house together I always combined postage on multiple items Instant Feedback Automatically Left Immediately after Receiving Payment All Items Sent out within 24 hours of Receiving Payment. Overseas Bidders Please Note Surface Mail Delivery Times > Western Europe takes up to 2 weeks, Eastern Europe up to 5 weeks, North America up to 6 weeks, South America, Africa and Asia up to 8 weeks and Australasia up to 12 weeks Thanks for Looking and Best of Luck with the Bidding!! Also if bidding from overseas and you want your item tracked please select the International Signed for Postage Option For that Interesting Conversational Piece, A Birthday Present, Christmas Gift, A Comical Item to Cheer Someone Up or That Unique Perfect Gift for the Person Who has Everything....You Know Where to Look for a Bargain! XXXX - DO NOT CLICK HERE - XXXX Click Here to Add me to Your List of Favourite Sellers If You Have any Questions Please Message me through ebay and I Will Reply ASAP "A Thing of Beauty is a Joy for ever" So go ahead and treat yourself! With my free returns there is no risk! Thanks for Looking and Hope to deal soon :) I have sold items to coutries such as Afghanistan * Albania * Algeria * American Samoa (US) * Andorra * Angola * Anguilla (GB) * Antigua and Barbuda * Argentina * Armenia * Aruba (NL) * Australia * Austria * Azerbaijan * Bahamas * Bahrain * Bangladesh * Barbados * Belarus * Belgium * Belize * Benin * Bermuda (GB) * Bhutan * Bolivia * Bonaire (NL) * Bosnia and Herzegovina * Botswana * Bouvet Island (NO) * Brazil * British Indian Ocean Territory (GB) * British Virgin Islands (GB) * Brunei * Bulgaria * Burkina Faso * Burundi * Cambodia * Cameroon * Canada * Cape Verde * Cayman Islands (GB) * Central African Republic * Chad * Chile * China * Christmas Island (AU) * Cocos Islands (AU) * Colombia * Comoros * Congo * Democratic Republic of the Congo * Cook Islands (NZ) * Coral Sea Islands Territory (AU) * Costa Rica * Croatia * Curaçao (NL) * Cyprus * Czech Republic * Denmark * Djibouti * Dominica * Dominican Republic * East Timor * Ecuador * Egypt * El Salvador * Equatorial Guinea * Eritrea * Estonia * Ethiopia * Falkland Islands (GB) * Faroe Islands (DK) * Fiji Islands * Finland * France * French Guiana (FR) * French Polynesia (FR) * French Southern Lands (FR) * Gabon * Gambia * Georgia * Germany * Ghana * Gibraltar (GB) * Greece * Greenland (DK) * Grenada * Guadeloupe (FR) * Guam (US) * Guatemala * Guernsey (GB) * Guinea * Guinea-Bissau * Guyana * Haiti * Heard and McDonald Islands (AU) * Honduras * Hong Kong (CN) * Hungary * Iceland * India * Indonesia * Iraq * Ireland * Isle of Man (GB) * Israel * Italy * Ivory Coast * Jamaica * Jan Mayen (NO) * Japan * Jersey (GB) * Jordan * Kazakhstan * Kenya * Kiribati * Kosovo * Kuwait * Kyrgyzstan * Laos * Latvia * Lebanon * Lesotho * Liberia * Libya * Liechtenstein * Lithuania * Luxembourg * Macau (CN) * Macedonia * Madagascar * Malawi * Malaysia * Maldives * Mali * Malta * Marshall Islands * Martinique (FR) * Mauritania * Mauritius * Mayotte (FR) * Mexico * Micronesia * Moldova * Monaco * Mongolia * Montenegro * Montserrat (GB) * Morocco * Mozambique * Myanmar * Namibia * Nauru * Navassa (US) * Nepal * Netherlands * New Caledonia (FR) * New Zealand * Nicaragua * Niger * Nigeria * Niue (NZ) * Norfolk Island (AU) * Korea * Northern Cyprus * Northern Mariana Islands (US) * Norway * Oman * Pakistan * Palau * Palestinian Authority * Panama * Papua New Guinea * Paraguay * Peru * Philippines * Pitcairn Island (GB) * Poland * Portugal * Puerto Rico (US) * Qatar * Reunion (FR) * Romania * Russia * Rwanda * Saba (NL) * Saint Barthelemy (FR) * Saint Helena (GB) * Saint Kitts and Nevis * Saint Lucia * Saint Martin (FR) * Saint Pierre and Miquelon (FR) * Saint Vincent and the Grenadines * Samoa * San Marino * Sao Tome and Principe * Saudi Arabia * Senegal * Serbia * Seychelles * Sierra Leone * Singapore * Sint Eustatius (NL) * Sint Maarten (NL) * Slovakia * Slovenia * Solomon Islands * Somalia * South Africa * South Georgia (GB) * South Korea * South Sudan * Spain * Sri Lanka * Sudan * Suriname * Svalbard (NO) * Swaziland * Sweden * Switzerland ** Taiwan * Tajikistan * Tanzania * Thailand * Togo * Tokelau (NZ) * Tonga * Trinidad and Tobago * Tunisia * Turkey * Turkmenistan * Turks and Caicos Islands (GB) * Tuvalu * U.S. Minor Pacific Islands (US) * U.S. Virgin Islands (US) * Uganda * Ukraine * United Arab Emirates * United Kingdom * United States * Uruguay * Uzbekistan * Vanuatu * Vatican City * Venezuela * Vietnam * Wallis and Futuna (FR) * Yemen * Zambia * Zimbabwe and major cities such as Tokyo, Yokohama, New York City, Sao Paulo, Seoul, Mexico City, Osaka, Kobe, Kyoto, Manila, Mumbai, Delhi, Jakarta, Lagos, Kolkata, Cairo, Los Angeles, Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro, Moscow, Shanghai, Karachi, Paris, Istanbul, Nagoya, Beijing, Chicago, London, Shenzhen, Essen, Düsseldorf, Tehran, Bogota, Lima, Bangkok, Johannesburg, East Rand, Chennai, Taipei, Baghdad, Santiago, Bangalore, Hyderabad, St Petersburg, Philadelphia, Lahore, Kinshasa, Miami, Ho Chi Minh City, Madrid, Tianjin, Kuala Lumpur, Toronto, Milan, Shenyang, Dallas, Fort Worth, Boston, Belo Horizonte, Khartoum, Riyadh, Singapore, Washington, Detroit, Barcelona,, Houston, Athens, Berlin, Sydney, Atlanta, Guadalajara, San Francisco, Oakland, Montreal, Monterey, Melbourne, Ankara, Recife, Phoenix/Mesa, Durban, Porto Alegre, Dalian, Jeddah, Seattle, Cape Town, San Diego, Fortaleza, Curitiba, Rome, Naples, Minneapolis, St. Paul, Tel Aviv, Birmingham, Frankfurt, Lisbon, Manchester, San Juan, Katowice, Tashkent, f*ckuoka, Baku, Sumqayit, St. Louis, Baltimore, Sapporo, Tampa, St. Petersburg, Taichung, Warsaw, Denver, Cologne, Bonn, Hamburg, Dubai, Pretoria, Vancouver, Beirut, Budapest, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, Campinas, Harare, Brasilia, Kuwait, Munich, Portland, Brussels, Vienna, San Jose, Damman , Copenhagen, Brisbane, Riverside, San Bernardino, Cincinnati and Accra The History of Binoculars Ever wondered how binoculars came to be? We step back in time to see who invented them and why. Find out all about binoculars in today’s history lesson. What are binoculars? Binoculars are two telescopes attached side-by-side and aligned to focus in the same direction or an optical instrument with a lens for each eye that is used for viewing distant objects. They are also known as field glasses which provides a magnified view of distant objects. If you’re curious about just how they work, then don’t miss our guide to the science behind them. Common uses of binoculars A binocular is a device that comes handy when watching your favorite games while at the rear, watching birds, hunting and lots more. The less expensive a binocular is, the more people purchase them and enjoy the capabilities they have because this optical instrument lets you see details from a distant location. When were binoculars invented? It took about 5,000 years for glass to be able to be shaped into a lens for the first telescope. The scientist, Galileo Galilei was introduced to astronomy using a telescope. He was the first to see the craters on the moon, discover sunspots, the four moons around Jupiter and the rings surrounding Saturn. The telescope dealt with limited magnification as well as a narrow field of focus. Hans Lippershey, an experienced eyeglass maker from Holland, was not the first to assemble a device like a telescope but he was credited with the invention as he was the first to make the new device widely known. who-invented-binoculars Later, Sir Isaac Newton announced that there was a new telescope design whereby a curved mirror was used to receive light and reflect it back to a point of focus instead of glass lenses. This reflector telescope designed by Newton paved way for other telescope concepts to be used to magnify objects. It was after the first 300 years of telescopes being in existence that binoculars finally evolved. Then it was a binocular telescope that had two small prismatic telescopes fused together. This was when Hans Lippershey sought a 30-year patent that would allow him to have exclusive manufacturing rights of his instruments in 1608 that the official in charge, who had never seen a telescope before, asked him to build a binocular version of it. Lippershey announced the first binocular on December 8th, 1608 and then after it passed inspection, two more (made using optics made from quartz crystals) were created. The early binoculars were made with glass lenses and Galilean optics. These optics were named after Galilei Galileo for the progress he made over early telescopes. Galilean binoculars had an inverted eyepiece and a curved lens or mirror that received light from the focused object when viewed and focused the light rays to produce the real image. Though the elements in the binocular gave it the ability to produce a right-side-up image, one of its faults was that it produced a narrow field of vision and had a low magnification. As you know, a binocular is the conjoining of two telescopes side-by-side and can be treated similar to a telescope. You should know that a binocular makes visual perception easy while presenting a three-dimensional image of the focused object. Check out this post to see how we actually perceive depth of field. Some of the links below are affiliate links, meaning, at no additional cost to you, we may make a commission if you click through and make a purchase. Recommended Reading: Don’t miss our guide to the leading kids’ binoculars. So who really invented binoculars? There was speculation about the invention of binoculars in 1608 and 1609 when it was announced. Galilei Galileo was the first man to introduce the telescope. An experienced eyeglass maker from Holland, Hans Lippershey was the first to be credited and acknowledged as having assembled an instrument like the telescope that allows users to use both eyes to view distant objects. He made the invention widely known. When Lippershey gained a 30-year patent that would have given him mutually exclusive rights to his invention, a bureaucrat in charge of approvals requested that he produce a telescope with two eyepiece and optics of quartz. The instrument was completed, and it received approval in 1608. But the patent rights weren’t granted to Lippershey based on the fact that other people were already aware of the invention. binoculars-on-carpet Some scholars had their doubts as regards the new invention while others had praise for Lippershey. Louise Bell speculated that the new instrument had a power of 3 or 4 times with an objective of an inch-and-one-half or less in diameter. Henry King, another authority on the history of the telescope, agreed with Bell as he said that quartz was more difficult to work with and the so the request for crystal optics was mainly because of the low quality of optical glasses in that period. During the civil war, a Robert Tolles made available a supply of field glasses which Henry Fitz and Alvan Clark each used to produce a binocular. Though in February 1865, the Clark glass was tested, but only one device was completed by the end of the war. History has it that none of these binoculars currently exist. Then came Ignatio Porro with prisms in binoculars. The modern prism binocular started with his 1854 Italian patent for a prism-erecting system. In the 1860s, monoculars that used the same prism configuration with the modern porro prism binoculars were produced through work he did Paris with Jean Georges Hofmann, who was a German optician. Other makers of porro-prism optics include the companies Nachet in 1875, Emil Busch in 1865 and Boulanger in 1859. Some manufacturers made prism binoculars that were a combination of low-quality of glasses and optical designs that were unrefined, and their production techniques resulted in a failed venture. It is unknown if any of those binoculars survived. Ernst Abbe, a German optical designer showcased a prism telescope at the Vienna Trade Fair in 1873. The invention was designed using Porro’s ideas but without the knowledge of the previous work. Abbe wanted to cement the prisms initially, but he put it on hold in order to develop the theoretical basis of the modern microscope. He was associated with Otto Schott, a glassmaker, and Carl Zeiss, an instrument maker and this resulted in quite a series of innovations by the German optical industry. As history records, in 1894, the first quality binoculars with a modern design were sold and it was a result of the optical designs of Ernst Abbe teamed with the production abilities Carl Zeiss brought to the binocular industry. Take a look at our guide to binocular maintenance to see how you can prolong the life and maintain the performance of your favorite bird watching tool. You don’t want to miss our guide to the top spotting scopes for every budget either. You can see it here. Stay tuned for lots more at Stealthy Ninjas over the coming weeks. We’ll be reviewing the top binoculars for various activities in the near future. Horse brass 5th-century BC Celtic phalera from a chariot burial in Gaul Display of English brasses A horse brass is a brass plaque used for the decoration of horse harness gear, especially for shire and parade horses. They became especially popular in England from the mid-19th century until their general decline alongside the use of the draft horse, and remain collectors items today. Phalera is the archaeological term for equivalent disks, which were popular in Iron Age Europe, including Ancient Rome. History A modern souvenir horse brass featuring Gloucester Cathedral In ancient Rome, horse harnesses were sometimes embellished with horse brasses known as phalerae, normally in bronze, cut or cast in the shape of a boss, disk, or crescent, most often used in pairs on a harness.[1] In medieval England, decorative horse brasses were in use before the 12th century, serving as talismans and status symbols, but extensive, original research by members of the National Horse Brass Society has shown that there is no connection whatsoever between these bronze amulets to the working-class harness decorations used in the mid-19th century which developed as part of a general flowering of the decorative arts following the Great Exhibition. There are a great deal of die-hard, unfounded myths surrounding these decorations such as their usage as amulets to ward off the "evil eye". The most popular size is 3 × 3+1⁄2 inches of flat brass with a hanger by which the brass is threaded onto a horse harness strap, known as a Martingale. In England many of these items of harness found their way into country public houses as the era of the heavy horse declined, and are still associated today as a pub decoration. By the late 19th century heavy horses were decorated with brasses of all kinds and sizes. During this era working horse parades were popular throughout the British Isles and prize or merit awards were given, some by the Royal Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA). Horse brasses were often highly prized by the "carters", who decorated their horse with them. Other horse brass subjects include advertising, royalty commemoration, and in later years, souvenir brasses for places and events, many of which are still being made and used today. Collection Collecting horse brasses for their own sake other than as decorations for harness seems to have commenced around 1880, when women bought the newly issued, pierced-design, die-struck brasses which were used for pin-cushions. A little later these were often used as fingerplates on doors which can be corroborated by accounts in the trade magazine, Saddler and Harness by the veteran saddler William Albery or Horsham in Sussex. From 1890 onward, collecting the various types of brass, i.e. face-pieces, swingers, and hame-plates, etc., became a highly popular pastime amongst the upper and middle classes. Indeed, the collecting of these humble brasses became especially popular amongst academics with many famous, early collections being formed by public schoolmasters and other prominent professionals, such as A.H. Tod,[2] a Master at Charterhouse School and Dr Kirk of Pickering in Yorkshire, whose collection is still housed at the York Castle Museum in York. The writing about such items also commenced c. 1890s and was dominated by much Victorian romanticism surrounding the supposed, esoteric origin and ancient, unbroken lineage of these decorations. Such myths include their origin as talismanic symbols being brought back to England by homecoming knights returning from the Crusades, or in later years, by migrating Romani, though, once again, absolutely no evidence has ever been offered in support of these theories. Cast brasses Whatever the views of individual collectors as to when or where working-horse harness decoration first began in the British Isles, most collectors agree that cast brasses were the first to appear on the scene. Opinion is also still divided as to how, even these, originated, but once again, most collectors nowadays, are in agreement that the earliest decorations were simple, cast studs in a variety of shapes and sizes. The earliest types were probably even made locally by smiths or other skilled artisans but by the second half of the 19th century the production of such things had evolved from a local, decorative cult into a national fashion with the bulk of their production centred in and around the West Midlands.[3] Stamped brasses Stamped brasses on heavy horse harness appeared on the scene around 1880, with a small number occurring perhaps a decade or so earlier, and it is highly likely that the process developed from one that was already established in the manufacture of carriage harness trappings and military insignia. However, production of these appears to have peaked shortly before the First World War, and since the 1920s, a few types have been produced but their quality is rather poor being made from thinner gauge brass sheet. Due to serious considerations of the sheer weight of cast harness decorations carried by working horses (first raised by the early animal welfare movements in the late 19th century) it is thought that the first stamped brasses were made as a lighter (and cheaper), alternative to cast brasses being later exported throughout the British Empire. Unlike their cast cousins, stamped brasses were not made in moulds, but pressed out of rolled sheet brass approximately 1/16 in thickness although other gauges of sheet than earlier examples. Due to the ease of their manufacture, many thousands of these stamped types were produced, but there are some that are very rare. The production of both cast and stamped brasses has continued since the demise of the British working horse but their manufacture is mainly centred on the souvenir trade, and other specialist manufacturers who provide for the heavy horse world who still breed and show the various breeds. The National Horse Brass Society of England has members all over the world and provides publications for members and swap meets. References "Phalera", James Yates, M.A., F.R.S., on p. 894 of William Smith, D.C.L., LL.D.: A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, John Murray, London, 1875. (At pp. 764–765 of the 1878 edition.) Horse Brass Collections No. 1 (1944) Henry Devonshire, Birmingham National Horse Brass Society, UK External links National Horse Brass Society Museum of English Rural Life Horse Brass collection vte Horse tack and other equine equipment Saddles, component parts and accessories Saddles Western saddleEnglish saddleAustralian Stock SaddleSidesaddlePack saddle Component parts and accessories Girth (tack)Breastplate (tack)StirrupTapaderoSaddle blanketSaddlebagPannier Bits, bridles and hackamores Headstalls BridleHackamoreDouble bridleBitless bridle Bits and bit parts Curb bitSnaffle bitGag bitKimblewick bitPelham bitSpade bit (horse)Ring bitBit mouthpieceBit ringBit shank Component parts and accessories Noseband or cavessonBosalMechanical hackamoreReinsRomalMecate (rein)Curb chainFiador (tack)Bit converterBit guardLip strapTongue-tie (tack) Horse harness and carriages Harness and parts Horse harnessHorse collar (includes hames)Breastplate (tack)Breeching (tack)CrupperTrace (tack)TerretSurcingle Harness bridle components Blinders or blinkersShadow rollBearing rein or overcheck Horse-drawn vehicles CarriageSulkywagonSledCartHorse and buggyNaturmobil Tack accessories and training tools Martingale (tack)WhipCrop (implement)QuirtSpurSurcingleBitting rigLongeing cavessonSide reinsChambonDraw reins and running reinsGogue Other equipment Stable equipment HalterLead (tack)Grooming toolsHorse blanketFly mask Leg protection Leg wrapsPolo wrapsShipping bandageStable bandageBell bootsSplint bootsSkid boots Restraints Hobble (device)Picket lineTwitch (device)Cattle crush Historic or ceremonial equipment McClellan saddleBardingKura (saddle)Abumi (stirrup)FrenteraShabrackCaparisonHorse brassHipposandal Farriery (horseshoeing) HorseshoeHoof bootCaulkins Occupations GroomHostlerStrapper Transportation Horse trailer Glossary of equestrian termsCategory:Horse tack and equipment vte Amulets and talismans Amulets AgimatAmulet MS 5236Axe of PerunAzusa YumiBonshōBrigid's crossBroom (Besom)BullaBullroarerCarnyxCeltic crossCimarutaCornicelloCrepundiaCorn dollyCorn husk dollCross necklaceDacian DracoDjucuDōtakuDreamcatcherDzi beadElf-arrowFascinusFuluGod's eyeGood luck charmGorgoneionGris-grisHanging craftHama yaHama yumiHamsaHercules' ClubHorse brassHorseshoeHoko dollI'noGo tiedJackal's hornJujuKabura-yaKagome crestKagura suzuKanai AnzenKoan kroachLapis alectoriusMandrakeMedicine bagMjölnirMojoMugwortNazarOfudaOmamoriPalad khikPictish painted pebblesPoppetRabbit's footRed stringRinSachetSampySuzuTa'wizTakrutThokchaThunderstoneTintinnabulumTouch pieceTriskelionTroll crossVoodoo dollWitch ballWitch bottle Talismans LamenNavaratnaSeal of SolomonSwastikaUncial 0152 Related articles Apotropaic magicCurse tabletEvil eyeFeng shuiFolk religionMagic and religionNumerologyNumismatic charmSuperstitionsTorma Authority control: National libraries Edit this at Wikidata IsraelUnited States Categories: Horse harnessHorse ornamentationLuckNumismaticsAmuletsBrassMetallic objects Charles III Article Talk Read View source View history Tools Page semi-protected "Charles, Prince of Wales" and "Prince Charles" redirect here. For other uses, see Charles, Prince of Wales (disambiguation); Prince Charles (disambiguation); and Charles III (disambiguation). Charles III Head of the Commonwealth Photograph of Charles III Charles in 2019 King of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms[a] Reign 8 September 2022 – present Predecessor Elizabeth II Heir apparent William, Prince of Wales Born Prince Charles of Edinburgh 14 November 1948 (age 74) Buckingham Palace, London, England Spouses Diana Spencer (m. 1981; div. 1996) Camilla Parker Bowles (m. 2005) Issue Detail William, Prince of Wales Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex Names Charles Philip Arthur George[b] House Windsor[1] Father Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh Mother Elizabeth II Religion Protestant[c] Signature Charles's signature in black ink Education Gordonstoun School Alma mater Trinity College, Cambridge (MA) Charles III's voice 2:54 Speech to the Scottish Parliament following the death of his mother, Queen Elizabeth II Delivered 12 September 2022 Royal family of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms Badge of the House of Windsor The King The Queen Consort The Prince of Wales The Princess of Wales Prince George of Wales Princess Charlotte of Wales Prince Louis of Wales The Duke of Sussex The duch*ess of Sussex Prince Archie of Sussex Princess Lilibet of Sussex The Princess Royal The Duke of York Princess Beatrice Princess Eugenie The Duke of Edinburgh The duch*ess of Edinburgh The Duke of Gloucester The duch*ess of Gloucester The Duke of Kent The duch*ess of Kent Princess Alexandra Prince Michael of Kent Princess Michael of Kent vte Charles III (Charles Philip Arthur George; born 14 November 1948) is King of the United Kingdom and the 14 other Commonwealth realms.[a] Charles was born in Buckingham Palace during the reign of his maternal grandfather, George VI, and was three years old when his mother, Elizabeth II, acceded to the throne in 1952, making him the heir apparent. He was made Prince of Wales in 1958 and his investiture was held in 1969. He was educated at Cheam and Gordonstoun schools and later spent six months at the Timbertop campus of Geelong Grammar School in Victoria, Australia. After earning a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Cambridge, Charles served in the Royal Air Force and Navy for five years, beginning in 1971. In 1981, he married Lady Diana Spencer, with whom he has two sons: William and Harry. The couple divorced in 1996, after they had each engaged in well-publicised extramarital affairs. Diana died in a car crash the following year. In 2005, Charles married his long-term partner, Camilla Parker Bowles. As heir apparent, Charles undertook official duties and engagements on behalf of his mother. He founded the youth charity The Prince's Trust in 1976, sponsors The Prince's Charities, and is a patron, president, or a member of over 400 other charities and organisations. He has advocated for the conservation of historic buildings and the importance of architecture in society; in that vein, he generated the experimental new town of Poundbury. An environmentalist, Charles supported organic farming and action to prevent climate change during his time as the manager of the Duchy of Cornwall estates, earning him awards and recognition as well as criticism; he is also a prominent critic of the adoption of genetically modified food, while his support for homeopathy and other alternative medicine has been criticised. He has published his views by authoring or co-authoring over 20 books. Charles succeeded his mother upon her death on 8 September 2022. At the age of 73, he became the oldest person to accede to the British throne, after having been the longest-serving heir apparent and Prince of Wales in British history. His coronation is scheduled to take place on 6 May 2023. Early life, family, and education Christening of Charles (centre, wearing the royal christening gown) in 1948: (from left to right) his grandfather King George VI; his mother, Princess Elizabeth, holding him; his father, Philip; and his grandmother Queen Elizabeth Charles was born at 21:14 (GMT) on 14 November 1948,[2] during the reign of his maternal grandfather, George VI. He was the first child of Princess Elizabeth, duch*ess of Edinburgh (later Queen Elizabeth II), and Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.[3] His parents had three more children, Anne (born 1950), Andrew (born 1960) and Edward (born 1964). On 15 December 1948, at four weeks old, he was christened in the Music Room of Buckingham Palace by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Geoffrey Fisher.[d][5] He was given the name "Charles Philip Arthur George", and as a titled member of the royal family made no use of any surname during his childhood (and only rarely since).[6][1][7] Charles's grandfather died on 6 February 1952 and, consequently, Charles's mother acceded as Elizabeth II and Charles immediately became the heir apparent. Under a charter of King Edward III in 1337, and as the monarch's eldest son, he automatically assumed the traditional titles of Duke of Cornwall and, in the Scottish peerage, the titles Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles, and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland.[8] On 2 June the following year, Charles attended his mother's coronation at Westminster Abbey.[9] When Charles turned five, a governess, Catherine Peebles, was appointed to oversee his education at Buckingham Palace.[10] Charles then commenced classes at Hill House School in west London on 7 November 1956.[11] He was the first heir apparent to attend school, rather than be educated by a private tutor.[12] He did not receive preferential treatment from the school's founder and headmaster, Stuart Townend, who advised the Queen to have Charles train in football, because the boys were never deferential to anyone on the football field.[13] Charles subsequently attended two of his father's former schools: Cheam Preparatory School in Hampshire, England,[14] from 1958,[11] followed by Gordonstoun, in the north-east of Scotland,[15] beginning classes there in April 1962.[11] A young Prince Charles with his mother, Elizabeth II, his father, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and his sister, Princess Anne With his parents and sister Anne, October 1957 In Charles's 1994 authorised biography by Jonathan Dimbleby, Elizabeth and Philip were described as physically and emotionally distant parents and Philip was blamed for his disregard of Charles's sensitive nature, including forcing him to attend Gordonstoun, where he was bullied.[16] Though Charles reportedly described Gordonstoun, noted for its especially rigorous curriculum, as "Colditz in kilts",[14] he later praised the school, stating it had taught him "a great deal about myself and my own abilities and disabilities. It taught me to accept challenges and take the initiative." He said in a 1975 interview he was "glad" he had attended Gordonstoun and that the "toughness of the place" was "much exaggerated".[17] Charles spent two terms in 1966 at the Timbertop campus of Geelong Grammar School in Victoria, Australia, during which time he visited Papua New Guinea on a school trip with his history tutor, Michael Collins Persse.[18][19] In 1973, Charles described his time at Timbertop as the most enjoyable part of his whole education.[20] Upon his return to Gordonstoun, Charles emulated his father in becoming head boy and left in 1967, with six GCE O-levels and two A-levels in history and French, at grades B and C respectively.[18][21] On his early education, Charles later remarked, "I didn't enjoy school as much as I might have; but, that was only because I'm happier at home than anywhere else."[17] Charles broke royal tradition a second time when he proceeded straight to university after his A-levels, rather than joining the British Armed Forces.[14] In October 1967, he was admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he studied archaeology and anthropology for the first part of the Tripos and then switched to history for the second part.[22][18] During his second year, Charles attended the University College of Wales in Aberystwyth, studying Welsh history and language for a term.[18] Charles became the first British heir apparent to earn a university degree, graduating on 23 June 1970 from the University of Cambridge with a 2:2 Bachelor of Arts (BA) degree.[18][23] As per tradition, on 2 August 1975, his Bachelor of Arts was promoted to a Master of Arts (MA Cantab) degree; at Cambridge, a Master of Arts is not a postgraduate degree.[18] Prince of Wales Charles was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester on 26 July 1958,[24] though his investiture was not held until 1 July 1969, when he was crowned by his mother in a televised ceremony held at Caernarfon Castle.[25] He took his seat in the House of Lords the following year[26] and he delivered his maiden speech on 13 June 1974,[27] the first royal to speak from the floor since the future Edward VII in 1884.[28] He spoke again in 1975.[29] Charles began to take on more public duties, founding the Prince's Trust in 1976[30] and travelling to the United States in 1981.[31] In the mid-1970s, Charles expressed an interest in serving as governor-general of Australia, at the suggestion of Australian prime minister Malcolm Fraser. But, due to a lack of public enthusiasm, nothing came of the proposal.[32] In reaction, Charles commented, "so, what are you supposed to think when you are prepared to do something to help and you are just told you're not wanted?"[33] Military training and career Charles served in the Royal Air Force (RAF) and the Royal Navy. During his second year at Cambridge, he received Royal Air Force training, learning to fly the Chipmunk aircraft with the Cambridge University Air Squadron,[34] and was presented with his RAF wings in August 1971.[35] Three county-class destroyers sailing in the English Channel (Front to back) HMS Norfolk, London, and Antrim in the English Channel following joint exercises with the RAF in December 1971. Charles was serving aboard the Norfolk at this time. After the passing-out parade that September, Charles embarked on a naval career and enrolled in a six-week course at the Royal Naval College Dartmouth. He then served from 1971 to 1972 on the guided-missile destroyer HMS Norfolk and the frigates HMS Minerva, from 1972 to 1973, and HMS Jupiter in 1974. That same year, he also qualified as a helicopter pilot at RNAS Yeovilton and subsequently joined 845 Naval Air Squadron, operating from HMS Hermes.[36] Charles spent his last 10 months of active service in the Navy commanding the coastal minehunter HMS Bronington, beginning on 9 February 1976.[36] He took part in a parachute training course at RAF Brize Norton two years later, after being appointed colonel-in-chief of the Parachute Regiment in 1977.[37] Charles gave up flying after crash-landing a BAe 146 in Islay in 1994, for which the crew was found negligent by a board of inquiry.[38] Relationships and marriages Bachelorhood In his youth, Charles was amorously linked to a number of women. His girlfriends included Georgiana Russell, the daughter of Sir John Russell, who was the British ambassador to Spain;[39] Lady Jane Wellesley, the daughter of the 8th Duke of Wellington;[40] Davina Sheffield;[41] Lady Sarah Spencer;[42] and Camilla Shand, who later became his second wife.[43] Portrait of Charles taken in 1972 Photograph by Allan Warren, 1972 Charles's great-uncle, Lord Mountbatten, advised him to "sow his wild oats and have as many affairs as he can before settling down," but, for a wife, he "should choose a suitable, attractive, and sweet-charactered girl before she has met anyone else she might fall for ... It is disturbing for women to have experiences if they have to remain on a pedestal after marriage."[44] Early in 1974, Mountbatten began corresponding with 25-year-old Charles about a potential marriage to Amanda Knatchbull, Mountbatten's granddaughter.[45] Charles wrote to Amanda's mother, Lady Brabourne, who was also his godmother, expressing interest in her daughter. Lady Brabourne replied approvingly; though, she suggested that a courtship with a 16-year-old was premature.[46] Four years later, Mountbatten arranged for Amanda and himself to accompany Charles on his 1980 visit to India. Both fathers, however, objected; Philip feared that Charles would be eclipsed by his famous uncle,[e] while Lord Brabourne warned that a joint visit would concentrate media attention on the cousins before they could decide on becoming a couple.[47] In August 1979, before Charles would depart alone for India, Mountbatten was assassinated by the Irish Republican Army. When Charles returned, he proposed to Amanda. But, in addition to her grandfather, she had lost her paternal grandmother and youngest brother in the bomb attack and was now reluctant to join the royal family.[47] Lady Diana Spencer Main article: Wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer Charles and Diana visiting Uluru in 1983 Charles and Diana visit Uluru in Australia, March 1983 Charles first met Lady Diana Spencer in 1977, while he was visiting her home, Althorp. He was then the companion of her elder sister, Sarah, and did not consider Diana romantically until mid-1980. While Charles and Diana were sitting together on a bale of hay at a friend's barbecue in July, she mentioned that he had looked forlorn and in need of care at the funeral of his great-uncle, Lord Mountbatten. Soon, according to Dimbleby, "without any apparent surge in feeling, he began to think seriously of her as a potential bride" and she accompanied Charles on visits to Balmoral Castle and Sandringham House.[48] Charles's cousin, Norton Knatchbull, and his wife told Charles that Diana appeared awestruck by his position and that he did not seem to be in love with her.[49] Meanwhile, the couple's continuing courtship attracted intense attention from the press and paparazzi. When Prince Philip told him that the media speculation would injure Diana's reputation if Charles did not come to a decision about marrying her soon, and realising that she was a suitable royal bride (according to Mountbatten's criteria), Charles construed his father's advice as a warning to proceed without further delay.[50] Charles proposed to Diana in February 1981, with their engagement becoming official on 24 February, and they were wed in St Paul's Cathedral on 29 July. Upon his marriage, Charles reduced his voluntary tax contribution from the profits of the Duchy of Cornwall from 50 per cent to 25 per cent.[51] The couple lived at Kensington Palace and Highgrove House, near Tetbury, and had two children: Prince William, in 1982, and Prince Harry, in 1984. Charles set a precedent by being the first royal father to be present at his children's births.[12] Charles giving a speech in Edmonton, with Diana standing to his right Charles and Diana at the Alberta Legislature Building in Edmonton, Canada, June 1983 Within five years, the marriage was in trouble due to the couple's incompatibility and near 13-year age difference.[52][53] By November 1986, Charles had fully resumed his affair with Camilla Parker Bowles.[54] In a videotape recorded by Peter Settelen in 1992, Diana admitted that, by 1986, she had been "deeply in love with someone who worked in this environment."[55][56] It was assumed that she was referring to Barry Mannakee,[57] who had been transferred to the Diplomatic Protection Squad in 1986, after his managers determined his relationship with Diana had been inappropriate.[56][58] Diana later commenced a relationship with Major James Hewitt, the family's former riding instructor.[59] Charles and Diana's evident discomfort in each other's company led to them being dubbed "The Glums" by the press.[60] Diana exposed Charles's affair with Camilla in a book by Andrew Morton, Diana: Her True Story. Audio tapes of her own extramarital flirtations also surfaced,[60] as did persistent suggestions that Hewitt is Prince Harry's father, based on a physical similarity between Hewitt and Harry. However, Harry had already been born by the time Diana's affair with Hewitt began.[61] Charles and Diana in 1987 Charles and Diana in Toledo, Spain, April 1987 In December 1992, John Major announced the couple's legal separation in the House of Commons. Early the following year, the British press published transcripts of a passionate, bugged telephone conversation between Charles and Camilla that had taken place in 1989, which was dubbed "Camillagate" and "Tampongate".[62] Charles subsequently sought public understanding in a television film with Dimbleby, Charles: The Private Man, the Public Role, broadcast on 29 June 1994. In an interview in the film, the Prince confirmed his own extramarital affair with Camilla, saying that he had rekindled their association in 1986, only after his marriage to Diana had "irretrievably broken down".[63][64] This was followed by Diana's own admission of marital troubles in an interview on the BBC current affairs show Panorama, broadcast on 20 November 1995.[65] Referring to Charles's relationship with Camilla, she said, "well, there were three of us in this marriage. So, it was a bit crowded." She also expressed doubt about her husband's suitability for kingship.[66] Charles and Diana divorced on 28 August 1996,[67] after being advised by the Queen in December 1995 to end the marriage.[68] The couple shared custody of their children.[69] Diana was killed in a car crash in Paris on 31 August 1997. Charles flew to Paris with Diana's sisters to accompany her body back to Britain.[70] In 2003, Diana's butler Paul Burrell published a note that he claimed had been written by Diana in 1995, in which there were allegations that Charles was "planning 'an accident' in [Diana's] car, brake failure and serious head injury", so that he could marry again.[71] When questioned by the Metropolitan Police inquiry team as a part of Operation Paget, Charles told the authorities that he did not know about his former wife's note from 1995 and could not understand why she had those feelings.[72] Camilla Parker Bowles Main article: Wedding of Prince Charles and Camilla Parker Bowles Charles and Camilla stand next to each other in Jamaica Charles and Camilla in Jamaica, March 2008 The engagement of the Prince of Wales and Camilla Parker Bowles was announced on 10 February 2005; he presented her with an engagement ring that had belonged to his grandmother Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother.[73] The Queen's consent to the marriage – as required by the Royal Marriages Act 1772 – was recorded in a Privy Council meeting on 2 March.[74] In Canada, the Department of Justice determined the consent of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada was not required, as the union would not produce any heirs to the Canadian throne.[75] Charles was the only member of the royal family to have a civil, rather than a church, wedding in England. British government documents from the 1950s and 1960s, published by the BBC, stated that such a marriage was illegal; though, these claims were dismissed by Charles's spokesman[76] and explained to be obsolete by the sitting government.[77] The union was scheduled to take place in a civil ceremony at Windsor Castle, with a subsequent religious blessing at the castle's St George's Chapel. The wedding venue was changed to Windsor Guildhall after it was realised a civil marriage at Windsor Castle would oblige the venue to be available to anyone who wished to be married there. Four days before the event, it was postponed from the originally scheduled date of 8 April until the following day in order to allow Charles and some of the invited dignitaries to attend the funeral of Pope John Paul II.[78] Charles's parents did not attend the marriage ceremony; the Queen's reluctance to attend possibly arose from her position as Supreme Governor of the Church of England.[79] The Queen and Duke of Edinburgh did attend the service of blessing and held a reception for the newlyweds at Windsor Castle.[80] The blessing by Archbishop of Canterbury Rowan Williams was televised.[81] Official duties See also: List of official overseas trips made by Charles III Charles carried out 560 official engagements in 2008,[82] 499 in 2010,[83] and over 600 in 2011. He completed 10,934 engagements between 2002 and 2022.[84] Charles in Gujarat, 1980 Charles with Harichand Megha Dalaya at Amul, in Anand, Gujarat, December 1980 During his time as Prince of Wales, Charles undertook official duties on behalf of the Queen.[85] He officiated at investitures and attended the funerals of foreign dignitaries.[86] Charles made regular tours of Wales, fulfilling a week of engagements each summer, and attending important national occasions, such as opening the Senedd.[87] The six trustees of the Royal Collection Trust met three times a year under his chairmanship.[88] Charles also represented his mother at the independence celebrations in Fiji in 1970,[89] the Bahamas in 1973,[90] Papua New Guinea in 1975,[91] Zimbabwe in 1980,[92] and Brunei in 1984.[93] In 1983, Christopher John Lewis, who had fired a shot with a .22 rifle at the Queen in 1981, attempted to escape a psychiatric hospital in order to assassinate Charles, who was visiting New Zealand with his first wife, Diana, and son William.[94] While Charles was visiting Australia on Australia Day in January 1994, David Kang fired two shots at him from a starting pistol in protest of the treatment of several hundred Cambodian asylum seekers held in detention camps.[95] In 1995, Charles became the first member of the royal family to visit the Republic of Ireland in an official capacity.[96] In 1997, Charles represented the Queen at the Hong Kong handover ceremony.[97] At the ceremony, he read the Queen's message to Hong Kongers, which said: "Britain is part of Hong Kong's history and Hong Kong is part of Britain's history. We are also part of each other's future".[98] Charles shaking hands with a crowd in New Zealand in 2015 Charles's ninth tour of New Zealand in 2015 At the funeral of Pope John Paul II in 2005, Charles caused controversy when he shook hands with the president of Zimbabwe, Robert Mugabe, who had been seated next to him. Charles's office subsequently released a statement saying that he could not avoid shaking Mugabe's hand and that he "finds the current Zimbabwean regime abhorrent."[99] Charles represented the Queen at the opening ceremony of the 2010 Commonwealth Games in Delhi, India.[100] From 15 to 17 November 2013, he represented the Queen for the first time at a Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting, in Colombo, Sri Lanka.[101] Charles and Camilla made their first joint trip to the Republic of Ireland in May 2015. The trip was called an important step in "promoting peace and reconciliation" by the British Embassy.[102] During the trip, Charles shook hands in Galway with Gerry Adams, leader of Sinn Féin and widely believed to be the leader of the IRA, the militant group that had killed Charles's relatives in the 1979 terror attack. The event was described by the media as a "historic handshake" and a "significant moment for Anglo-Irish relations".[103] A photograph taken on the 75th anniversary of D-Day. Seated left to right are: Governor-General of New Zealand Patsy Reddy, President of France Emmanuel Macron, Prince Minister of the United Kingdom Theresa May, Charles, Prince of Wales, Elizabeth II, President of the United States Donald Trump, President of Greece Prokopis Pavlopoulos, Chancellor of Germany Angela Merkel and Prime Minister of the Netherlands Mark Rutte With Queen Elizabeth II and other world leaders to mark the 75th anniversary of D-Day on 5 June 2019 Commonwealth heads of government decided at their 2018 meeting that Charles would be the next Head of the Commonwealth after the Queen.[104] The head is chosen and therefore not hereditary.[105] In March 2019, at the request of the British government, Charles and Camilla went on an official tour of Cuba, making them the first British royals to visit the country. The tour was seen as an effort to form a closer relationship between the United Kingdom and Cuba.[106] Charles contracted COVID-19 during the pandemic in March 2020.[107][108] Several newspapers were critical that Charles and Camilla were tested promptly at a time when many NHS doctors, nurses and patients had been unable to be tested expeditiously.[109] Charles tested positive for COVID-19 for a second time in February 2022.[110] Charles and Camilla, who also tested positive, had received doses of a COVID-19 vaccine in February 2021.[111] Charles seated on the Sovereign's Throne in the House of Lords during the 2022 state opening of the British Parliament Delivering the Queen's Speech to the British Parliament on behalf of his mother, May 2022 In November 2021, Charles attended the ceremonies held to mark Barbados's transition into a parliamentary republic, abolishing the position of monarch of Barbados.[112] Charles was invited by Prime Minister Mia Mottley as the future Head of the Commonwealth,[113] and it was the first time that a member of the royal family attended the transition of a realm to a republic.[114] In May 2022, Charles attended the State Opening of Parliament and delivered the Queen's Speech on behalf of his mother as a counsellor of state.[115] Reign Accession and coronation plans Main articles: Proclamation of accession of Charles III and Coronation of Charles III and Camilla Charles became king of the United Kingdom and 14 other Commonwealth realms upon his mother's death on 8 September 2022. He was the longest-serving British heir apparent, having surpassed Edward VII's record of 59 years on 20 April 2011.[116] When he became monarch at the age of 73, Charles was the oldest person to do so, the previous record holder being William IV, who was 64 when he became king in 1830.[117] Charles giving a speech to the Scottish Parliament after his mother's death, with the Presiding Officer of the Scottish Parliament Alison Johnstone seated next to him Addressing the Scottish Parliament following his accession as king Charles gave his first speech to the nation on 9 September, at 18:00 BST, in which he paid tribute to his mother and announced the appointment of his elder son, William, as Prince of Wales.[118] The following day, the Accession Council publicly proclaimed Charles as king, the ceremony being televised for the first time.[119][104] Attendees included the new queen consort, Camilla; William, Prince of Wales; Prime Minister Liz Truss and her six living prime ministerial predecessors.[120] The proclamation was also read out by local authorities around the United Kingdom. Other realms signed and read their own proclamations, as did Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland, British Overseas Territories, Crown Dependencies, Canadian provinces, and Australian states.[121] Charles and Camilla stand next to President Steinmeier Charles and Camilla with German president Frank-Walter Steinmeier on the first foreign visit of Charles's reign The coronation of Charles III and Camilla is due to take place on 6 May 2023, at Westminster Abbey.[122] Plans have been made for many years, under the code name Operation Golden Orb.[123] Reports before his accession suggested that Charles's coronation would be simpler than his mother's in 1953,[124] with the ceremony expected to be "shorter, smaller, less expensive, and more representative of different faiths and community groups – falling in line with the King's wish to reflect the ethnic diversity of modern Britain."[125] Nonetheless, the coronation will be a Church of England rite, requiring the coronation oath, and is planned to include the anointment, delivery of the orb, and enthronement.[126] Philanthropy and charity Since founding The Prince's Trust in 1976, using his £7,500 of severance pay from the Navy,[127] Charles has established 16 more charitable organisations and now serves as president of each.[128][85] Together, these form a loose alliance called The Prince's Charities, which describes itself as "the largest multi-cause charitable enterprise in the United Kingdom, raising over £100 million annually ... [and is] active across a broad range of areas including education and young people, environmental sustainability, the built environment, responsible business and enterprise, and international."[128] Charles is also patron of over 400 other charities and organisations[129] The Prince's Charities Canada was established in 2010, in a similar fashion to its namesake in the UK.[130] Charles uses his tours of Canada as a way to help draw attention to youth, the disabled, the environment, the arts, medicine, the elderly, heritage conservation, and education.[131] Charles has also set up The Prince's Charities Australia, based in Melbourne, to provide a coordinating presence for Charles's Australian and international charitable endeavours.[132] Charles and Camilla in Louisville, Kentucky Charles and Camilla visit the African American Heritage Center in Louisville, March 2015 Charles has supported humanitarian projects; for example, he, along with his two sons, took part in ceremonies that marked the 1998 International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination.[131] Charles was one of the first world leaders to express strong concerns about the human rights record of Romanian dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu, initiating objections in the international arena,[133] and subsequently supported the FARA Foundation,[129] a charity for Romanian orphans and abandoned children.[134] In January 2020, Charles became the first British patron of the International Rescue Committee, a charity which aims to help refugees and those displaced by war, persecution, or natural disaster.[135] In December 2022, Charles contributed to a £1m fund with a "substantial personal donation" for a project organised by the Felix Project that aimed to provide hundreds of fridges and freezers for food banks.[136] Following his mother's death, Charles asked for the donation to the Fuel Bank Foundation – a charity that "provides vouchers for pre-payment meters for gas and electricity" – to be in her memory.[137] In February 2023, he and Camilla donated to the Disasters Emergency Committee, which was helping victims of the 2023 Turkey–Syria earthquake.[138] Investigations of donations Main articles: The Prince's Foundation § Cash for honours allegations and other donations, and The Prince of Wales's Charitable Fund § Qatari donations Two of Charles's charities, The Prince's Foundation and The Prince of Wales's Charitable Fund, came under scrutiny in 2021 and 2022 for accepting donations the media deemed inappropriate. In August 2021, it was announced that The Prince's Foundation was launching an investigation into the reports,[139] with Charles's support.[140] The Charity Commission also launched an investigation into allegations that the donations meant for The Prince's Foundation had been instead sent to the Mahfouz Foundation.[141] In February 2022, the Metropolitan Police launched an investigation into the cash-for-honours allegations linked to the foundation,[142] passing their evidence to the Crown Prosecution Service for deliberation on 31 October.[143] The Prince's Trust office in Liverpool, UK The Times reported in June 2022 that, between 2011 and 2015, Charles accepted €3 million in cash from Qatari prime minister Hamad bin Jassim bin Jaber Al Thani.[144][145] Charles's meetings with Al Thani did not appear in the Court Circular.[144] There is no evidence that the payments were illegal or that it was not intended for the money to go to the charity;[145] although, the Charity Commission stated it would review the information[146] and announced in July 2022 that there would be no further investigation, as the information submitted had provided "sufficient assurance" that due diligence had taken place.[147] In the same month, The Times reported that The Prince of Wales's Charitable Fund received a donation of £1 million from Bakr bin Laden and Shafiq bin Laden – both half-brothers of Osama bin Laden – during a private meeting in 2013.[148][149] The Charity Commission described the decision to accept donations as a "matter for trustees" and added that no investigation was required.[150] Personal interests Letters sent by Charles to government ministers in 2004 and 2005 – the so-called black spider memos – presented potential embarrassment following a challenge by The Guardian newspaper to release the letters under the Freedom of Information Act 2000. In March 2015, the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom decided that Charles's letters must be released[151] and the letters were published by the Cabinet Office on 13 May.[152] The reaction was largely supportive of Charles, with little criticism of him;[153] the memos were variously described in the press as "underwhelming"[154] and "harmless"[155] and that their release had "backfired on those who seek to belittle him";[156] the reaction from the public was also supportive.[157] It was revealed in the same year that Charles had access to confidential Cabinet papers.[158] Charles meeting with Ruth Davidson and Nicola Sturgeon after the Kirking of the Scottish parliament, May 2016 In October 2020, a letter sent by Charles to Australian Governor-General John Kerr after Kerr's dismissal of Prime Minister Gough Whitlam in 1975 was released as part of the collection of palace letters regarding the Australian constitutional crisis.[159] In the letter, Charles appeared to be supportive of the Governor-General's decision, writing that what Kerr "did last year was right and the courageous thing to do – and most Australians seemed to endorse your decision when it came to the point," adding that he should not worry about "demonstrations and stupidities" that arose following his decision.[159] The Times reported in June 2022 that Charles had privately described the British government's Rwanda asylum plan as "appalling" and he feared that it would overshadow the Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting in Rwanda that same month, where Charles represented the Queen.[160] It was later claimed that Cabinet ministers had warned Charles to avoid making political comments, as they feared a constitutional crisis could arise if he continued to make such statements once he became king.[161] Built environment Charles has openly expressed his views on architecture and urban planning; he fostered the advancement of New Classical Architecture and asserted that he "care[s] deeply about issues such as the environment, architecture, inner-city renewal, and the quality of life."[162] In a speech given for the 150th anniversary of the Royal Institute of British Architects on 30 May 1984, he memorably described a proposed extension to the National Gallery in London as a "monstrous carbuncle on the face of a much-loved friend" and deplored the "glass stumps and concrete towers" of modern architecture.[163] He asserted that, "it is possible and important, in human terms, to respect old buildings, street plans, and traditional scales and, at the same time, not to feel guilty about a preference for facades, ornaments, and soft materials."[163] Charles called for local community involvement in architectural choices and asked, "why has everything got to be vertical, straight, unbending, only at right angles – and functional?"[163] For his work as patron of New Classical Architecture, Charles was awarded the 2012 Driehaus Architecture Prize from the University of Notre Dame, considered the highest award for New Classical Architecture and urban planning.[164] Charles at the science and arts centre and educational charity At-Bristol, now called We the Curious At the newly opened At-Bristol, 14 June 2000 Charles's book and BBC documentary A Vision of Britain, published in 1987, were also critical of modern architecture and he has continued to campaign for traditional urbanism, human scale, restoration of historic buildings, and sustainable design,[165] despite criticism in the press. Two of his charities – The Prince's Regeneration Trust and The Prince's Foundation for Building Community, which were later merged into one charity – promote his views and the village of Poundbury was built on land owned by the Duchy of Cornwall to a master plan by Léon Krier, under the guidance of Charles and in line with his philosophy.[162] Charles has "a deep understanding of Islamic art and architecture" and has been involved in the construction of a building and garden at the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies, which combine Islamic and Oxford architectural styles.[166] After lamenting in 1996 the unbridled destruction of many of Canada's historic urban cores, Charles offered his assistance to the Department of Canadian Heritage in creating a trust modelled on Britain's National Trust, a plan that was implemented with the passage of the federal budget in 2007.[167] In 1999, Charles agreed to the use of his title for the Prince of Wales Prize for Municipal Heritage Leadership, awarded by the National Trust for Canada to municipal governments that have shown sustained commitment to the conservation of historic places.[168] While visiting the United States and surveying the damage caused by Hurricane Katrina, Charles received the National Building Museum's Vincent Scully Prize in 2005, for his efforts in regard to architecture; he donated $25,000 of the prize money towards restoring storm-damaged communities.[169] Charles in Aberdyfi Charles in Aberdyfi, Wales, to celebrate the refurbishment of several retail properties, part of a revitalisation of Welsh villages Charles has occasionally intervened in projects that employ architectural styles such as modernism and functionalism.[170][171] In 2009, Charles wrote to the Qatari royal family – the financier of the redevelopment of the Chelsea Barracks site – labelling Lord Rogers's design for the site "unsuitable". Rogers claimed that Charles had also intervened to block his designs for the Royal Opera House and Paternoster Square.[172] CPC Group, the project developer, took a case against Qatari Diar to the High Court.[173] After the suit was settled, the CPC Group apologised to Charles "for any offence caused by the decision to commence litigation against Qatari Diar and the allegations made by CPC during the course of the proceedings".[173] Livery company commitments The Worshipful Company of Carpenters installed Charles as an Honorary Liveryman "in recognition of his interest in London's architecture."[174] Charles is also Permanent Master of the Worshipful Company of Shipwrights, a Freeman of the Worshipful Company of Drapers, Honorary Freeman of the Worshipful Company of Musicians, Honorary Freeman and Liveryman of the Worshipful Company of Stationers and Newspaper Makers, Honorary Member of the Court of Assistants of the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths, and a Royal Liveryman of the Worshipful Company of Gardeners.[175] Natural environment Charles addressing the opening of the Paris Climate Change Conference, November 2015 Since the 1970s, Charles has promoted environmental awareness.[176] At the age of 21, he delivered his first speech on environmental issues in his capacity as the chairman of the Welsh Countryside Committee.[177] An avid gardener, Charles has also emphasised the importance of talking to plants, stating that "I happily talk to the plants and trees, and listen to them. I think it's absolutely crucial".[178] His interest in gardening began in 1980 when he took over the Highgrove estate.[179] His "healing garden", based on sacred geometry and ancient religious symbolism, went on display at the Chelsea Flower Show in 2002.[179] Upon moving into Highgrove House, Charles developed an interest in organic farming, which culminated in the 1990 launch of his own organic brand, Duchy Originals,[180] which sells more than 200 different sustainably produced products; the profits (over £6 million by 2010) are donated to the Prince's Charities.[180][181] Along similar lines, Charles became involved with farming and various industries within it, regularly meeting with farmers to discuss their trade. A prominent critic of the practice,[182] Charles has also spoken against the use of GM crops, and in a letter to Tony Blair in 1998, Charles criticised the development of genetically modified foods.[183] The Sustainable Markets Initiative – a project that encourages putting sustainability at the centre of all activities – was launched by Charles at the World Economic Forum's annual meeting in Davos in January 2020.[184] In May of the same year, the initiative and the World Economic Forum initiated the Great Reset project, a five-point plan concerned with enhancing sustainable economic growth following the global recession caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.[185] Charles inaugurated Terra Carta (Latin for "Earth Charter") in January 2021, as a sustainable finance charter that would ask its signatories to follow a set of rules towards becoming more sustainable and make investments in projects and causes that help with preserving the environment,[186] and, in July, he and Jony Ive announced the Terra Carta Design Lab, a competition conceived by the Royal College of Art to find solutions to climate change and environmental issues, winners of which would be supported financially and introduced to the industry leads of the Sustainable Markets Initiative.[187] Charles and Camilla visit Hackney City Farm in East London, May 2009 In 2021, Charles spoke to the BBC about the environment and revealed that, two days per week, he eats no meat nor fish and, one day per week, he eats no dairy products.[188] In 2022, it was reported that Charles eats a breakfast of fruit salad, seeds, and tea. He does not eat lunch; but, takes a break for tea at 5:00 p.m. and eats dinner at 8:30 p.m., returning to work until midnight or after.[189] Ahead of Christmas dinner in 2022, Charles confirmed to animal rights group PETA that foie gras would not be served at any royal residences. As Prince of Wales, he had stopped the use of foie gras at his own properties for more than a decade before taking the throne.[190] The holy chrism oil to be used at his coronation is vegan and made from oils of olive, sesame, rose, jasmine, cinnamon, neroli, and benzoin, along with amber and orange blossom. His mother's chrism oil contained animal-based oils.[191] Charles delivered a speech at the 2021 G20 Rome summit, describing COP26 as "the last chance saloon" for preventing climate change and asking for actions that would lead to a green-led, sustainable economy.[192] In his speech at the opening ceremony for COP26, he repeated his sentiments from the previous year, stating that "a vast military-style campaign" was needed "to marshal the strength of the global private sector" for tackling climate change.[193] Charles, who is patron of the Cambridge Institute for Sustainability Leadership, introduced the Climate Action Scholarships for students from small island nations in partnership with University of Cambridge, University of Toronto, University of Melbourne, McMaster University, and University of Montreal, in March 2022.[194] In September that year, Charles hosted the Global Allergy Symposium at Dumfries House, with the Natasha Allergy Research Foundation and 16 allergy experts from around the world, to discuss factors behind new emerging allergies, including biodiversity loss and climate change.[195] It was alleged by media in 2022 that Truss had advised Charles against attending COP27, to which he agreed.[196] Alternative medicine See also: The Prince's Foundation for Integrated Health and The College of Medicine Charles and Yen-Ching Chang at the opening of the University College Hospital Proton Therapy Centre, London, UK, March 2022 Charles has controversially championed alternative medicine.[197] He first publicly expressed his interest in the topic in December 1982, in an address to the British Medical Association.[198] This speech was seen as "combative" and "critical" of modern medicine and was met with anger by some medical professionals.[199] Similarly, The Prince's Foundation for Integrated Health (FIH) attracted opposition from the scientific and medical community over its campaign encouraging general practitioners to offer herbal and other alternative treatments to NHS patients.[200][201] In April 2008, The Times published a letter from Edzard Ernst, Professor of Complementary Medicine at the University of Exeter, which asked the FIH to recall two guides promoting alternative medicine, saying, "the majority of alternative therapies appear to be clinically ineffective and many are downright dangerous." That year, Ernst published a book with Simon Singh called Trick or Treatment: Alternative Medicine on Trial and mockingly dedicated to "HRH the Prince of Wales". The last chapter is highly critical of Charles's advocacy of complementary and alternative treatments.[202] Charles's Duchy Originals produced a variety of complementary medicinal products, including a "Detox Tincture" that Ernst denounced as "financially exploiting the vulnerable" and "outright quackery".[203] Charles personally wrote at least seven letters[204] to the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency shortly before it relaxed the rules governing labelling of such herbal products, a move that was widely condemned by scientists and medical bodies.[205] It was reported in October 2009 that Charles had personally lobbied the Health Secretary, Andy Burnham, regarding greater provision of alternative treatments in the NHS.[203] Following accounting irregularities, the FIH announced its closure in April 2010, claiming that it "has achieved its key objective of promoting the use of integrated health."[206][207] The FIH was re-branded and re-launched later in the year as the College of Medicine,[207][208] of which Charles became a patron in 2019.[209] Sports Charles (at front) at the 2005 Chakravarty Cup Match at Ham Polo Club, June 2005 From his youth until 1992, Charles was an avid player of competitive polo.[210] Charles also frequently took part in fox hunting until the sport was banned in the United Kingdom in 2005.[211] By the late 1990s, opposition to the activity was growing when Charles's participation was viewed as a "political statement" by those who were opposed to it.[212] Charles has been a keen salmon angler since youth and supported Orri Vigfússon's efforts to protect the North Atlantic salmon. He frequently fishes the River Dee in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, and claims his most special angling memories are from his time spent in Vopnafjörður, Iceland.[213] Charles is a supporter of Burnley F.C..[214] Aside from hunting, Charles has also participated in target rifle competitions, representing the House of Lords in the Vizianagram Match (Lords vs. Commons) at Bisley.[215] He became President of the British National Rifle Association in 1977.[216] Visual, performing, and literary arts Further information: Bibliography of Charles III Charles has been involved in performance since he was a member of Dryden Society, Trinity College's drama group, and appeared in sketches and revues.[217] Charles attending a performance of Henry V in Stratford-upon-Avon Charles at a performance of Henry V at the Courtyard Theatre in 2007 He is president or patron of more than 20 performing arts organisations, including the Royal College of Music, Royal Opera, English Chamber Orchestra, Philharmonia Orchestra, Welsh National Opera, Royal Shakespeare Company (attending performances in Stratford-Upon-Avon, supporting fundraising events, and attending the company's annual general meeting),[218] British Film Institute,[219] and Purcell School. In 2000, he revived the tradition of appointing an official harpist to the Prince of Wales, in order to foster Welsh talent at playing the national instrument of Wales.[220] Charles is a keen watercolourist, having published books on the subject and exhibited and sold a number of his works to raise money for charity; in 2016, it was estimated that he had sold lithographs of his watercolours for a total of £2 million from a shop at his Highgrove House residence.[221] For his 50th birthday, 50 of his watercolours were exhibited at Hampton Court Palace and, for his 70th birthday, his works were exhibited at the National Gallery of Australia.[221] In 2001, 20 lithographs of his watercolour paintings illustrating his country estates were exhibited at the Florence International Biennale of Contemporary Art[222] and 79 of his paintings were put on display in London in 2022.[221] To mark the 25th anniversary of his investiture as Prince of Wales in 1994, the Royal Mail issued a series of postage stamps that featured his paintings.[221] Charles is Honorary President of the Royal Academy of Arts Development Trust[223] and, in 2015 and 2022, commissioned 12 paintings of D-Day veterans and seven Holocaust survivors, respectively, which went on display at the Queen's Gallery in Buckingham Palace.[224][225] Charles is the author of several books, and has contributed a foreword or preface to numerous books by others. He has also written, presented, or been featured in a variety of documentary films.[226] Religion and philosophy Charles and Camilla visit a synagogue in Budapest Charles and Camilla at Dohány Street Synagogue in Budapest, Hungary, March 2010 Shortly after his accession to the throne, Charles publicly described himself as "a committed Anglican Christian."[227] The King is the Supreme Governor of the Church of England[228] and a member of the Church of Scotland; Charles swore an oath to uphold that church immediately after he was proclaimed king.[229] At age 16, during Easter 1965, Charles was confirmed by Archbishop of Canterbury Michael Ramsey, in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.[230] He attends services at various Anglican churches close to Highgrove[231] and attends the Church of Scotland's Crathie Kirk with the rest of the royal family when staying at Balmoral Castle. In 2000, Charles served as Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland.[232][233] Laurens van der Post became a friend of Charles in 1977; he was dubbed the Prince's "spiritual guru" and was godfather to Charles's son, Prince William.[234] From van der Post, Charles developed a focus on philosophy and an interest in other religions.[235] Charles expressed his philosophical views in his 2010 book, Harmony: A New Way of Looking at Our World,[236] which won a Nautilus Book Award.[237] In 2019, Charles attended the service in Rome at which Pope Francis declared the canonisation of Cardinal Newman.[238] He has also visited Eastern Orthodox monasteries on Mount Athos,[239] in Romania,[240] and in Serbia,[241] and met with Eastern Church leaders in Jerusalem in 2020, during a visit that culminated in an ecumenical service in the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem and a walk through the city accompanied by Christian and Muslim dignitaries.[242] Charles also attended the consecration of Britain's first Syriac Orthodox cathedral, St Thomas Cathedral, Acton.[243] Charles is patron of the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies at the University of Oxford and attended the inauguration of the Markfield Institute of Higher Education, which is dedicated to Islamic studies in a multicultural context.[166][244] Charles conversing with Czech Orthodox priest Jaroslav Šuvarský With Czech Orthodox priest Jaroslav Šuvarský [cs] in Prague, Czech Republic, March 2010 In his 1994 documentary with Dimbleby, Charles said that, when king, he wished to be seen as a "defender of faith", rather than the monarch's traditional title of Defender of the Faith, in order to respect other people's religious traditions.[245] This attracted controversy at the time, as well as speculation that the coronation oath may be altered.[246] He stated in 2015 that he would retain the title of Defender of the Faith, whilst "ensuring that other people's faiths can also be practised", which he sees as a duty of the Church of England.[247] Charles reaffirmed this theme shortly after his accession and declared that his duties as sovereign included "the duty to protect the diversity of our country, including by protecting the space for faith itself and its practice through the religions, cultures, traditions, and beliefs to which our hearts and minds direct us as individuals."[227] His inclusive multi-faith approach and his own Christian beliefs were expressed in his first Christmas message as king, broadcast on 25 December 2022.[248] Media image and public opinion Main article: Cultural depictions of Charles III Since his birth, Charles has received close media attention, which increased as he matured. It has been an ambivalent relationship, largely impacted by his marriages to Diana and Camilla and their aftermath, but also centred on his future conduct as king.[249] Charles and Diana with First Lady of the United States Nancy Reagan and President of the United States Ronald Reagan Charles and Diana with US president Ronald Reagan and First Lady Nancy Reagan in November 1985 Described as the "world's most eligible bachelor" in the late 1970s,[250] Charles was subsequently overshadowed by Diana.[251] After her death, the media regularly breached Charles's privacy and printed exposés. Known for expressing his opinions, when asked during an interview to mark his 70th birthday whether this would continue in the same way once he is king, he responded "No. It won't. I'm not that stupid. I do realise that it is a separate exercise being sovereign. So, of course, you know, I understand entirely how that should operate".[252] A 2018 BMG Research poll found that 46% of Britons wanted Charles to abdicate immediately upon accession to the throne, in favour of William.[253] However, a 2021 opinion poll reported that 60% of the British public had a favourable opinion of him.[254] On his accession to the throne, The Statesman reported an opinion poll that put Charles's popularity with the British people at 42 per cent.[255] More recent polling suggested that his popularity increased sharply after he became king.[256] According to YouGov, as of 16 April 2023, Charles had an approval rating of 55%.[257] Reaction to press treatment In 1994, German tabloid Bild published nude photos of Charles that were taken while he was vacationing in Le Barroux;[258] they had reportedly been put up for sale for £30,000.[258] Buckingham Palace reacted by stating that it was "unjustifiable for anybody to suffer this sort of intrusion".[259] Charles, "so often a target of the press, got his chance to return fire" in 2002, when addressing "scores of editors, publishers, and other media executives" gathered at St Bride's Fleet Street to celebrate 300 years of journalism.[260][261] Defending public servants from "the corrosive drip of constant criticism," he noted that the press had been "awkward, cantankerous, cynical, bloody-minded, at times intrusive, at times inaccurate, and at times deeply unfair and harmful to individuals and to institutions."[261] But, he concluded, regarding his own relations with the press, "from time to time we are probably both a bit hard on each other, exaggerating the downsides and ignoring the good points in each."[261] Charles and Camilla (centre left) in front of the media pack in the French Quarter of New Orleans, USA, as part of Hurricane Katrina recovery efforts, November 2005 In 2005, one of Charles's private comments to Prince William was caught on a microphone during a press photo-call and published in the national press. After a question from the BBC's royal correspondent, Nicholas Witchell, Charles muttered, "these bloody people. I can't bear that man. I mean, he's so awful, he really is."[262] The following year, Charles filed a court case against The Mail on Sunday, after excerpts of his personal journals were published, revealing his opinions on matters such as the transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong to China in 1997, in which Charles described the Chinese government officials as "appalling old waxworks".[263][85] Charles and Camilla were named in 2011 as individuals whose confidential information was reportedly targeted or actually acquired in conjunction with the news media phone hacking scandal.[264] The Independent noted in 2015 that Charles would only speak to broadcasters "on the condition they have signed a 15-page contract, demanding that Clarence House attends both the 'rough cut' and 'fine cut' edits of films and, if it is unhappy with the final product, can 'remove the contribution in its entirety from the programme'."[265] This contract stipulated that all questions directed at Charles must be pre-approved and vetted by his representatives.[265] Residences and finance See also: Finances of the British royal family In 2023, The Guardian estimated Charles's personal wealth at £1.8 billion (EUR 2 billion, USD 2.2 billion).[266] This estimate includes the assets of the Duchy of Lancaster worth £653 million (and paying Charles an annual income of £20 million), jewels worth £533 million, real estate worth £330 million, shares and investments worth £142 million, a stamp collection worth at least £100 million, racehorses worth £27 million, artworks worth £24 million, and cars worth £6.3 million.[266] Most of this wealth Charles inherited from his mother, Elizabeth II, exempt from inheritance tax.[266] Photograph of Clarence House Clarence House, Charles's official residence as Prince of Wales from 2003 Clarence House, previously the residence of Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother, was Charles's official London residence from 2003, after being renovated at a cost of £4.5 million.[267][268] He previously shared apartments eight and nine at Kensington Palace with his first wife, Diana, before moving to York House at St James's Palace, which remained his principal residence until 2003.[268] Highgrove House in Gloucestershire is owned by the Duchy of Cornwall, having been purchased for his use in 1980, and which Charles rents for £336,000 per annum.[269] As Prince of Wales, Charles's primary source of income was generated from the Duchy of Cornwall, which owns 133,658 acres of land (around 54,090 hectares), including farming, residential, and commercial properties, as well as an investment portfolio. Since 1993, Charles has paid tax voluntarily under the Memorandum of Understanding on Royal Taxation, updated in 2013.[270] Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs were asked in December 2012 to investigate alleged tax avoidance by the Duchy of Cornwall.[271] The Duchy is named in the Paradise Papers, a set of confidential electronic documents relating to offshore investment that were leaked to the German newspaper Süddeutsche Zeitung.[272][273] Titles, styles, honours, and arms Main article: List of titles and honours of Charles III See also: List of awards received by Charles III A logo with "CR III" and a crown (coloured) Royal cypher of Charles III, surmounted by the Tudor Crown[274] A logo with "CR III" and a crown Scottish royal cypher of Charles III, surmounted by the Crown of Scotland[274] Titles and styles Charles was originally styled His Royal Highness Prince Charles of Edinburgh.[275] Upon his mother's accession in 1952, he, as the monarch's eldest son, automatically acquired the duchies of Cornwall and Rothesay and became known as His Royal Highness the Duke of Cornwall. Though he continued to hold the title until his accession in 2022, this style was superseded when he was created Prince of Wales in 1958. From then until he became king, Charles was generally styled His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, except in Scotland, where he was styled His Royal Highness the Duke of Rothesay. When his father died in 2021, Charles also inherited the title of Duke of Edinburgh.[276] The title merged with the Crown upon Charles's accession to the throne.[277] There had been speculation throughout his mother's reign as to what regnal name Charles would choose upon his accession; instead of Charles III, he could have chosen to reign as George VII or used one of his other given names.[278] It was reported that he might use George in honour of his grandfather, George VI, and to avoid associations with previous royalty named Charles.[279][280][f] Charles's office asserted in 2005 that no decision had yet been made.[281] Speculation continued for a few hours following his mother's death,[282] until first Liz Truss announced, and then Clarence House confirmed, that Charles would use the regnal name Charles III.[283][284] Honours and military appointments Charles speaks to members of the Canadian Armed Forces Charles meets Canadian Armed Forces members taking part in Exercise Southern Katipo, in Westport, November 2015 Charles has held substantive ranks in the armed forces of a number of countries since he was commissioned as a flight lieutenant in the Royal Air Force in 1972. Charles's first honorary appointment in the armed forces was as Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Regiment of Wales in 1969; since then, he has also been installed as Colonel-in-Chief, Colonel, Honorary Air Commodore, Air Commodore-in-Chief, Deputy Colonel-in-Chief, Royal Honorary Colonel, Royal Colonel, and Honorary Commodore of at least 32 military formations throughout the Commonwealth, including the Royal Gurkha Rifles, which is the only foreign regiment in the British army.[285] Since 2009, Charles holds the second-highest ranks in all three branches of the Canadian Forces and, on 16 June 2012, the Queen awarded him the highest honorary rank in all three branches of the British Armed Forces, "to acknowledge his support in her role as Commander-in-Chief", installing him as Admiral of the Fleet, Field Marshal and Marshal of the Royal Air Force.[286] Charles has been inducted into seven orders and received eight decorations from the Commonwealth realms, and has been the recipient of 20 different honours from foreign states, as well as nine honorary degrees from universities in the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand. Arms Main articles: Arms of the United Kingdom and Arms of Canada As Prince of Wales, Charles used the arms of the United Kingdom differenced with a white label and an inescutcheon of the Principality of Wales, surmounted by the heir apparent's crown. When Charles became king, he inherited the royal coats of arms of the United Kingdom and of Canada. The design of his royal cypher, featuring a depiction of the Tudor crown instead of St Edward's Crown, was revealed on 27 September 2022. According to the College of Arms, the Tudor crown will now be used in representations of the royal arms of the United Kingdom and on uniforms and crown badges.[287] Coat of arms as Prince of Wales (1958–2022) Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom for use in Scotland Royal coat of arms of Canada Banners, flags, and standards As heir apparent The banners used by Charles as Prince of Wales varied depending upon location. His personal standard for the United Kingdom was the Royal Standard of the United Kingdom differenced as in his arms, with a label of three points argent and the escutcheon of the arms of the Principality of Wales in the centre. It was used outside Wales, Scotland, Cornwall, and Canada, and throughout the entire United Kingdom when Charles was acting in an official capacity associated with the British Armed Forces.[288] The personal flag for use in Wales was based upon the Royal Badge of Wales (the historic arms of the Kingdom of Gwynedd), which consists of four quadrants, the first and fourth with a red lion on a gold field and the second and third with a gold lion on a red field. Superimposed is an escutcheon vert, bearing the single-arched coronet of the Prince of Wales.[288] In Scotland, the personal banner used between 1974 and 2022 was based upon three ancient Scottish titles: Duke of Rothesay (heir apparent to the King of Scots), High Steward of Scotland, and Lord of the Isles. The flag was divided into four quadrants, like the arms of the Chief of Clan Stewart of Appin; the first and fourth quadrants comprised a gold field with a blue and silver checkered band in the centre; the second and third quadrants displayed a black galley on a silver field. The arms were differenced from those of Appin by the addition of an inescutcheon bearing the tressured lion rampant of Scotland, defaced by a plain label of three points azure, to indicate the heir apparent.[288] In Cornwall, the banner was the arms of the Duke of Cornwall: Sable 15 bezants Or; meaning, a black field bearing 15 gold coins.[288] In 2011, the Canadian Heraldic Authority introduced a personal heraldic banner for the Prince of Wales for Canada, consisting of the shield of the Royal Coat of Arms of Canada defaced with both a blue roundel of the Prince of Wales's feathers surrounded by a wreath of gold maple leaves and a white label of three points.[289] Banner of arms Royal standard of the Prince of Wales for the United Kingdom Standard for Wales Standard for Scotland Banner of arms of the Duke of Cornwall Royal standard of the Prince of Wales for Canada As sovereign Main article: Royal Standard of the United Kingdom The royal standard is used to represent the King in the United Kingdom and on official visits overseas, except in Canada. It is the royal arms in banner form undifferentiated, having been used by successive British monarchs since 1702. Royal Standard United Kingdom (outside Scotland) Scotland Issue Name Birth Marriage Children Date Spouse William, Prince of Wales 21 June 1982 (age 40) 29 April 2011 Catherine Middleton Prince George of Wales Princess Charlotte of Wales Prince Louis of Wales Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex 15 September 1984 (age 38) 19 May 2018 Meghan Markle Prince Archie of Sussex Princess Lilibet of Sussex Ancestry Ancestors of Charles III[290] See also List of current monarchs of sovereign states List of covers of Time magazine (1960s), (1970s), (1980s), (2010s) Notes In addition to the United Kingdom, the fourteen other realms are: Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, The Bahamas, Belize, Canada, Grenada, Jamaica, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, the Solomon Islands, and Tuvalu. As the reigning monarch, Charles does not usually use a family name, but when one is needed, it is Mountbatten-Windsor.[1] As monarch, Charles is Supreme Governor of the Church of England. He is also a member of the Church of Scotland. Prince Charles's godparents were: the King of the United Kingdom (his maternal grandfather); the King of Norway (his paternal cousin twice removed and maternal great-great-uncle by marriage, for whom Charles's great-great-uncle the Earl of Athlone stood proxy); Queen Mary (his maternal great-grandmother); Princess Margaret (his maternal aunt); Prince George of Greece and Denmark (his paternal great-uncle, for whom the Duke of Edinburgh stood proxy); the Dowager Marchioness of Milford Haven (his paternal great-grandmother); the Lady Brabourne (his cousin); and the Hon David Bowes-Lyon (his maternal great-uncle).[4] Mountbatten had served as the last British viceroy and first governor-general of India. Namely, the Stuart kings Charles I, who was beheaded, and Charles II who was known for his promiscuous lifestyle. Charles Edward Stuart, once a Stuart pretender to the English and Scottish thrones, was called Charles III by his supporters.[279] References "The Royal Family name". Official website of the British monarchy. Archived from the original on 15 February 2009. Retrieved 3 February 2009. "No. 38455". The London Gazette. 15 November 1948. p. 1. Brandreth 2007, p. 120. "The Christening of Prince Charles". Royal Collection Trust. Retrieved 17 December 2021. "HRH The Prince of Wales | Prince of Wales". www.princeofwales.gov.uk. Retrieved 13 September 2022. "The Book of the Baptism Service of Prince Charles". Royal Collection Trust. Retrieved 25 April 2023. "What is King Charles III's surname? Monarch's full name revealed". Metro. Retrieved 25 April 2023. Brandreth 2007, p. 127. "50 facts about the Queens Coronation". www.royal.uk. Archived from the original on 7 February 2021. Retrieved 3 January 2019. Gordon, Peter; Lawton, Denis (2003). Royal Education: Past, Present, and Future. F. Cass. p. 215. ISBN 9780714683867. Retrieved 19 September 2022. "About the Prince of Wales". royal.uk. 26 December 2018. Archived from the original on 9 May 2016. "Growing Up Royal". Time. 25 April 1988. Archived from the original on 31 March 2005. Retrieved 4 June 2009. "Lieutenant Colonel H. Stuart Townend". The Times. 30 October 2002. Archived from the original on 22 June 2018. Retrieved 29 May 2009. "HRH The Prince of Wales". Debrett's. Archived from the original on 4 July 2012. Retrieved 27 August 2012. Brandreth 2007, p. 139. Rocco, Fiammetta (18 October 1994). "Flawed Family: This week the Prince of Wales disclosed still powerful resentments against his mother and father". The Independent. Retrieved 15 February 2022. Rudgard, Olivia (10 December 2017). "Colditz in kilts? Charles loved it, says old school as Gordonstoun hits back at The Crown". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 20 June 2018. Retrieved 13 December 2017. "The Prince of Wales – Education". Prince of Wales. Archived from the original on 13 November 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2012. "The New Boy at Timbertop". The Australian Women's Weekly. Vol. 33, no. 37. 9 February 1966. p. 7. Archived from the original on 1 April 2021. Retrieved 13 January 2018 – via National Library of Australia.; "Timbertop – Prince Charles Australia" (Video with audio, 1 min 28 secs). British Pathé. 1966. Archived from the original on 11 March 2021. Retrieved 12 January 2018 – via YouTube. "Prince had happy time at Timbertop". The Canberra Times. Vol. 47, no. 13, 346. 31 January 1973. p. 11. Archived from the original on 1 April 2021. Retrieved 13 January 2018 – via National Library of Australia. Brandreth 2007, p. 145. "HRH The Prince of Wales". Prince of Wales. Retrieved 15 May 2021.; Brandreth 2007, p. 151 Holland, Fiona (10 September 2022). "God Save The King!". Trinity College Cambridge. Retrieved 14 September 2022. "No. 41460". The London Gazette. 29 July 1958. p. 4733.; "The Prince of Wales – Previous Princes of Wales". Prince of Wales. Archived from the original on 11 October 2008. Retrieved 12 October 2008. "The Prince of Wales – Investiture". Prince of Wales. Archived from the original on 20 October 2008. Retrieved 12 October 2008. "H.R.H. The Prince of Wales Introduced". Hansard. 11 February 1970. HL Deb vol 307 c871. Archived from the original on 19 October 2020. Retrieved 16 October 2019.; "The Prince of Wales – Biography". Prince of Wales. Archived from the original on 9 November 2012. Retrieved 12 October 2008. "Sport and Leisure". Hansard. 13 June 1974. HL Deb vol 352 cc624–630. Archived from the original on 18 October 2020. Retrieved 16 October 2019. Shuster, Alvin (14 June 1974). "Prince Charles Speaks in Lords". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 29 April 2020. Retrieved 12 June 2018. "Voluntary Service in the Community". Hansard. 25 June 1975. HL Deb vol 361 cc1418–1423. Archived from the original on 27 July 2020. Retrieved 16 October 2019. "The Prince's Trust". The Prince's Charities. Archived from the original on 21 September 2008. Retrieved 12 October 2008. Ferretti, Fred (18 June 1981). "Prince Charles pays a quick visit to city". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 29 April 2020. Retrieved 22 August 2013. Daley, Paul (9 November 2015). "Long to reign over Aus? Prince Charles and Australia go way back". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 13 June 2018. Retrieved 13 June 2018. David Murray (24 November 2009). "Next governor-general could be Prince Harry, William". The Australian. Archived from the original on 29 April 2020. Retrieved 12 June 2018. Brandreth 2007, pp. 169–170"Military Career of the Prince of Wales". Prince of Wales. Archived from the original on 14 May 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2013. "Prince Charles after receiving his wings 20 August 1971". Royal Collection Trust. Retrieved 5 October 2022.; "Prince Charles attends RAF Cranwell ceremony". BBC News. 16 July 2020. Retrieved 5 October 2022. Brandreth 2007, p. 170. "Prince Charles: Video shows 'upside down' parachute jump". BBC News. 15 July 2021. Retrieved 5 October 2022. Ranter, Harro. "Incident British Aerospace BAe-146-100 ZE700, 29 Jun 1994". aviation-safety.net. Archived from the original on 27 October 2017. Retrieved 12 May 2017.; Boggan, Steve (19 July 1995). "Prince gives up flying royal aircraft after Hebrides crash". The Independent. Archived from the original on 24 March 2017. Retrieved 23 March 2017. Brandreth 2007, p. 192. Brandreth 2007, p. 193. Brandreth 2007, p. 194. Brandreth 2007, p. 195. Brandreth 2007, pp. 15–17, 178. Junor 2005, p. 72. Dimbleby 1994, pp. 204–206; Brandreth 2007, p. 200 Dimbleby 1994, p. 263. Dimbleby 1994, pp. 263–265. Dimbleby 1994, p. 279. Dimbleby 1994, pp. 280–282. Dimbleby 1994, pp. 281–283. "Royally Minted: What we give them and how they spend it". New Statesman. UK. 13 July 2009. Brown, Tina (2007). The Diana Chronicles. p. 720. Smith 2000, p. 561. "The truth behind Charles and Camilla's affair storyline in The Crown". Radio Times. 1 January 2020. Retrieved 9 September 2022. "Diana 'wanted to live with guard'". BBC News. 7 December 2004. Archived from the original on 31 July 2017. Retrieved 31 July 2017. Langley, William (12 December 2004). "The Mannakee file". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 31 July 2017. Retrieved 31 July 2017. Lawson, Mark (7 August 2017). "Diana: In Her Own Words – admirers have nothing to fear from the Channel 4 tapes". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 20 September 2017. Retrieved 22 October 2017. Milmo, Cahal (8 December 2004). "Conspiracy theorists feast on inquiry into death of Diana's minder". The Independent. Archived from the original on 1 August 2017. Retrieved 31 July 2017. "Princess Diana's Former Lover Maintains He Is Not Prince Harry's Father". Vanity fair. 13 March 2017. Archived from the original on 26 June 2019. Retrieved 25 November 2018. "CNN.com - Royals, Part 3: Troubled times - June 3, 2002". edition.cnn.com. Retrieved 22 January 2023. "Hewitt denies Prince Harry link". BBC News. 21 September 2002. Archived from the original on 15 February 2009. Retrieved 24 April 2011.; Holder, Margaret (24 August 2011). "Who Does Prince Harry Look Like? James Hewitt Myth Debunked". The Morton Report. Archived from the original on 29 May 2012. Retrieved 22 May 2012. "The Camillagate Tapes" Archived 1 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine, 18 December 1989, phone transcript, Phone Phreaking; "Royals caught out by interceptions". BBC News. 29 November 2006. Archived from the original on 28 August 2017. Retrieved 27 April 2012.; Dockterman, Eliana (9 November 2022). "The True Story Behind Charles and Camilla's Phone Sex Leak on The Crown". Time. Retrieved 17 November 2022. "The Princess and the Press". PBS. Archived from the original on 10 March 2017. Retrieved 7 January 2017.; "Timeline: Charles and Camilla's romance". BBC. 6 April 2005. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 7 January 2017. Dimbleby 1994, p. 395. "1995: Diana admits adultery in TV interview". BBC. Retrieved 1 August 2018. "The Panorama Interview with the Princess of Wales". BBC News. 20 November 1995. Archived from the original on 4 March 2011. Retrieved 8 January 2010. "'Divorce': Queen to Charles and Diana". BBC News. 20 December 1995. Archived from the original on 23 December 2010. Retrieved 12 October 2008. "Charles and Diana to divorce". Associated Press. 21 December 1995. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 23 July 2013. Neville, Sarah (13 July 1996). "Charles and Diana Agree to Terms of Divorce". The Washington Post. Retrieved 12 November 2022. Whitney, Craig R. (31 August 1997). "Prince Charles Arrives in Paris to Take Diana's Body Home". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 6 December 2013. Retrieved 5 May 2014. "Diana letter 'warned of car plot'". CNN. 20 October 2003. Retrieved 14 April 2019.; Eleftheriou-Smith, Loulla-Mae (30 August 2017). "Princess Diana letter claims Prince Charles was 'planning an accident' in her car just 10 months before fatal crash". The Independent. Retrieved 14 April 2019.; Rayner, Gordon (20 December 2007). "Princess Diana letter: 'Charles plans to kill me'". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 28 November 2020. Badshah, Nadeem (19 June 2021). "Police interviewed Prince Charles over 'plot to kill Diana'". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 September 2021. Wickell, Carly. "Camilla's Engagement Ring". About.com. Archived from the original on 10 November 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013. "Order in Council, 2 March 2005". Privy-council.org.uk. Archived from the original on 3 November 2010. Retrieved 20 February 2012. Valpy, Michael (2 November 2005). "Scholars scurry to find implications of royal wedding". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Archived from the original on 27 July 2020. Retrieved 4 March 2009. "Panorama Lawful impediment?". BBC News. 14 February 2005. Archived from the original on 29 September 2009. Retrieved 25 February 2009. The Secretary of State for Constitutional Affairs and Lord Chancellor (Lord Falconer of Thoroton) (24 February 2005). "Royal Marriage; Lords Hansard Written Statements 24 Feb 2005 : Column WS87 (50224-51)". Publications.parliament.uk. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 12 October 2008. The Government are satisfied that it is lawful for the Prince of Wales and Mrs Parker Bowles, like anyone else, to marry by a civil ceremony in accordance with Part III of the Marriage Act 1949. ¶ Civil marriages were introduced in England, by the Marriage Act 1836. Section 45 said that the Act ... shall not extend to the marriage of any of the Royal Family". ¶ But the provisions on civil marriage in the 1836 Act were repealed by the Marriage Act 1949. All remaining parts of the 1836 Act, including Section 45, were repealed by the Registration Service Act 1953. No part of the 1836 Act, therefore, remains on the statute book. "Pope funeral delays royal wedding". BBC News. 4 April 2005. Archived from the original on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013. "Q&A: Queen's wedding decision". BBC News. 23 February 2005. Archived from the original on 11 January 2009. Retrieved 17 September 2012. "Charles And Camilla Finally Wed, After 30 Years Of Waiting, Prince Charles Weds His True Love". CBS News. 9 April 2005. Archived from the original on 12 November 2010. Retrieved 12 October 2008. Oliver, Mark (9 April 2005). "Charles and Camilla wed". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 22 August 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013. Swaine, Jon (31 December 2008). "Prince Charles 'becomes hardest-working Royal'". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 13 October 2013. Retrieved 2 October 2012. "Prince Charles is hardest working royal". Female First. 4 January 2011. Archived from the original on 7 November 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012. "The royal clan: who's who, what do they do and how much money do they get?". The Guardian. 7 April 2023. Retrieved 8 April 2023. Landler, Mark (8 September 2022). "Long an Uneasy Prince, King Charles III Takes On a Role He Was Born To". The New York Times. Brandreth 2007, p. 325. "Opening of the Senedd". assemblywales.org. Archived from the original on 10 August 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2014. "Administration of Royal Collection trust". royalcollection.org. Archived from the original on 6 October 2012. Retrieved 19 April 2013. Trumbull, Robert (10 October 1970). "Fiji Raises the Flag of Independence After 96 Years of Rule by British". The New York Times – via NYTimes.com. "1973: Bahamas' sun sets on British Empire". BBC News. 9 July 1973. "Papua New Guinea Celebrates Independence". The New York Times. 16 September 1975 – via NYTimes.com. Ross, Jay (18 April 1980). "Zimbabwe Gains Independence". The Washington Post. "Brunei celebrated its independence from Britain Thursday with traditional..." UPI. Ainge Roy, Eleanor (13 January 2018). "'Damn ... I missed': the incredible story of the day the Queen was nearly shot". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 1 March 2018. Retrieved 1 March 2018. Newman, John (12 May 1994). "Cambodian Refugees". New South Wales Legislative Assembly Hansard. Parliament of New South Wales. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007.; "Student fires 2 blanks at Prince Charles". Los Angeles Times. 27 January 1994. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 13 April 2018. "Archive: Prince Charles visits Ireland in 1995". BBC. 21 April 2015. Archived from the original on 11 May 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018.; McCullagh, David; Milner, Cathy. "Prince Charles Makes First Royal Visit to Ireland 1995". Raidió Teilifís Éireann. Archived from the original on 15 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. Brendon, Piers (2007). The Decline and Fall of the British Empire, 1781–1997. Random House. p. 660. ISBN 978-0-224-06222-0.; Brown, Judith (1998). The Twentieth Century, The Oxford History of the British Empire Volume IV. Oxford University Press. p. 594. ISBN 978-0-19-924679-3. "Britain and Hong Kong". Sino-American Relations. 23: 4. 1997. "Charles shakes hands with Mugabe at Pope's funeral". The Times. 8 April 2005. Archived from the original on 22 June 2018. Retrieved 8 July 2007.(subscription required) "The Prince of Wales opens the Commonwealth Games". Prince of Wales. 3 October 2010. Archived from the original on 21 May 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2013. "Queen to miss Colombo CHOGM". The Hindu. 8 May 2013. Archived from the original on 9 August 2013. Retrieved 7 August 2013.; "Queen to miss Commonwealth meeting for first time since 1973". The Guardian. 7 May 2013. Archived from the original on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 7 August 2013. "Prince Charles Shakes the Hand of Irish Republican Leader Gerry Adams". Time. Archived from the original on 21 May 2015. Retrieved 21 May 2015. McDonald, Henry (19 May 2015). "Prince Charles and Gerry Adams share historic handshake". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 21 May 2015. Retrieved 20 May 2015.; "Historic handshake between Prince Charles and Gerry Adams". The Independent. Archived from the original on 19 May 2015. Retrieved 21 May 2015.; Adam, Karla (19 May 2015). "Prince Charles, in Ireland, meets with Sinn Fein party leader Gerry Adams". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 22 May 2015. Retrieved 21 May 2015. "Queen's Funeral Set for Sept. 19 at Westminster Abbey". New York Times. 10 September 2022. Retrieved 20 September 2022. Adam, Karla (20 April 2018). "Commonwealth backs Prince Charles as its next leader". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 6 August 2018. Retrieved 5 July 2018. "Prince Charles and Camilla make history in Cuba". BBC News. 25 March 2019. Archived from the original on 2 April 2019. Retrieved 10 May 2019. Reynolds, Emma; Foster, Max; Wilkinson, David (25 March 2020). "Prince Charles tests positive for novel coronavirus". CNN. Archived from the original on 25 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.; Davies, Gareth (25 March 2020). "Prince Charles tests positive for coronavirus: These are his most recent engagements". The Daily Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on 25 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020. "Coronavirus: Prince Charles tests positive but 'remains in good health'". BBC. 25 March 2020. Archived from the original on 25 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020. "Warning to all as Prince Charles catches coronavirus amid 'queue jump' claims – The Yorkshire Post says". The Yorkshire Post. 15 March 2020. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.; Rudd, Andy (25 March 2020). "Coronavirus: NHS workers' fury that Prince Charles had test with "mild symptoms"". Daily Mirror. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020. Ott, Haley (10 February 2022). "Britain's Prince Charles tests positive for COVID-19 for the 2nd time". CBS News. Retrieved 10 February 2022. "Covid: Prince Charles and Camilla get first vaccine". BBC News. 10 February 2021. Retrieved 29 May 2021. Mills, Rhiannon (30 November 2021). "Barbados: Prince Charles acknowledges 'appalling' history of slavery as island becomes a republic". Sky News. Retrieved 30 November 2021. "All About Prince Charles's Visit to Barbados as the Country Cuts Ties with the Monarchy". Town & Country. 28 November 2021. "Regretful Prince Charles flies to Barbados to watch his realm become a republic". The Times. 28 November 2021. Davies, Caroline (10 May 2022). "Queen remains 'very much in charge' even as Charles makes speech". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 May 2022. "Prince Charles becomes longest-serving heir apparent". BBC News. 20 April 2011. Archived from the original on 18 July 2015. Retrieved 30 November 2011. Rayner, Gordon (19 September 2013). "Prince of Wales will be oldest monarch crowned". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 20 September 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2013. "King Charles III pays tribute to his 'darling mama' in first address". BBC.com. 9 September 2022. "Charles formally confirmed as king in ceremony televised for first time". BBC News. 10 September 2022. Retrieved 10 September 2022. Ratcliffe, Rebecca (10 September 2022). "Charles III is proclaimed King". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 September 2022. Torrance, David (29 September 2022), The Accession of King Charles III (PDF), House of Commons Library, p. 21, retrieved 25 April 2023 "Coronation on 6 May for King Charles and Camilla, Queen Consort". BBC News. 11 October 2022. Pepinster, Catherine (2022). "Chapter 9: Vivat! Vivat! Vivat Rex! the next coronation". Defenders of the Faith: Queen Elizabeth II's funeral will see Christianity take centre stage. London: Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 978-1399800068.; Mahler, Kevin (14 February 2022). "Ghosts? Here's the true tale of things that go bump in the night". The Times. Retrieved 9 September 2022. the codename for the coronation planning: 'Operation Golden Orb' Hyde, Nathan; Field, Becca (17 February 2022). "Prince of Wales plans for a 'scaled back' coronation ceremony with Camilla". CambridgeshireLive. Retrieved 8 March 2022. Arasteh, Amira (23 September 2022). "King Charles III coronation: When is he officially crowned and what happens next?". The Telegraph. Retrieved 23 September 2022.; Dixon, Hayley; Gurpreet, Narwan (13 September 2022). "Coronation for the cost of living crisis as King expresses wish for 'good value'". The Times. Retrieved 14 September 2022. "King Charles III, the new monarch". BBC News. 18 September 2022. Smout, Alistair; Mills, Sarah; Gumuchian, Marie-louise (16 September 2022). "With Charles king, his Prince's Trust youth charity goes on". Reuters. Retrieved 26 November 2022. "The Prince's Charities". Prince of Wales. Archived from the original on 26 September 2010. Retrieved 16 October 2012. "HRH The Prince of Wales". Official website. Archived from the original on 31 December 2018. Retrieved 26 December 2018. Mackreal, Kim (18 May 2012). "Prince Charles rallies top-level support for his Canadian causes". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 20 May 2012. Retrieved 22 May 2012. "Royal Visit 2001". Canadianheritage.gc.ca. Archived from the original on 22 September 2008. Retrieved 12 October 2008. "Contact Us". The Prince's Charities Australia. Archived from the original on 9 August 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2013. Dimbleby 1994, p. 250. "FARA Charity". FARA Enterprises. Archived from the original on 12 October 2010. Retrieved 25 September 2012. Cooney, Rebecca (10 January 2020). "Prince Charles becomes International Rescue Committee's first UK patron". Third Sector. Archived from the original on 10 January 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2020. "King Charles donates fridges and freezers to food banks". BBC News. 3 December 2022. Retrieved 19 January 2023. Coughlan, Sean (23 December 2022). "Donations for late Queen given to fuel bill charity". BBC News. Retrieved 19 January 2023. Adams, Charley; McGarvey, Emily (9 February 2023). "Turkey-Syria earthquake: King thanked for 'generous' donation to DEC disaster appeal". BBC News. Retrieved 9 February 2023. Quinn, Ben (29 August 2021). "Prince of Wales charity launches inquiry into 'cash for access' claims". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 August 2021. Foster, Max; Said-Moorhouse, Lauren (6 September 2021). "Former aide to Prince Charles steps down over cash-for-honors scandal". CNN. Retrieved 7 September 2021. Butler, Patrick (18 November 2021). "Inquiry into foundation linked to Prince of Wales launched". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 November 2021. "Breaking: Met Police investigate cash-for-honours allegations against Prince Charles' charity". City A.M. 16 February 2022. Archived from the original on 16 February 2022. Retrieved 16 February 2022.; O'Connor, Mary (16 February 2022). "Police to investigate Prince Charles' charity". BBC. Archived from the original on 16 February 2022. Retrieved 17 February 2022. Gadher, Dipesh; Gabriel Pogrund; Megan Agnew (19 November 2022). "Cash-for-honours police pass file on King's aide Michael Fawcett to prosecutors". The Sunday Times. Pogrund, Gabriel; Keidan, Charles; Faulkner, Katherine (25 June 2022). "Prince Charles accepted €1m cash in suitcase from sheikh". The Times. Retrieved 25 June 2022. Connett, David (25 June 2022). "Prince Charles is said to have been given €3m in Qatari cash". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 June 2022. "Prince Charles: Charity watchdog reviewing information over reports royal accepted carrier bag full of cash as a charity donation from Qatar ex-PM". Sky News. 27 June 2022. Retrieved 27 June 2022. Coughlan, Sean (20 July 2022). "Prince Charles: No inquiry into £2.5m cash donation to his charity". BBC. Retrieved 21 July 2022. Pogrund, Gabriel; Charles Keidan (30 July 2022). "Prince Charles accepted £1m from family of Osama bin Laden". The Times. Retrieved 30 July 2022. "Prince Charles dined with Bin Laden's brother". The Guardian. 13 October 2001. Retrieved 30 July 2022. Furness, Hannah (1 August 2022). "Prince Charles's charity won't be investigated for accepting bin Laden family £1m donation". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 1 August 2022. Evans, Rob (26 March 2015). "Supreme court clears way for release of secret Prince Charles letters". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 27 March 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2015. "Cabinet Office". www.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 18 December 2020. Retrieved 15 May 2015.; Vinter, Robyn (14 May 2015). "What are the Black Spider Memos? Read Prince Charles's letters in full". londonlovesbusiness.com. Archived from the original on 16 May 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2015.; "Prince Charles's black spider memos in 60 seconds". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 16 May 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2015. "Prince Charles, the toothfish and the toothless 'black spider' letters". The Washington Post. 14 May 2015. Archived from the original on 6 April 2018. Retrieved 23 May 2015. Spector, Dina (13 May 2015). "There are 3 reasons why Britain might be completely underwhelmed by Prince Charles' black spider memos". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 23 April 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2015. Jenkins, Simon (13 May 2015). "The black spider memos: a royal sigh of woe at a world gone to the dogs". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 14 June 2018. Retrieved 23 May 2015. Roberts, Andrew (13 May 2015). "All the 'black spider memos' expose is the passion and dignity of Prince Charles". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 15 May 2015. Retrieved 23 May 2015. Mills, Joe (14 May 2015). "'Black spider' memos: Prince Charles successfully badgered Blair over health rules". IB Times. Archived from the original on 16 November 2018. Retrieved 23 May 2015. Booth, Robert (15 December 2015). "Revealed: Prince Charles has received confidential cabinet papers for decades". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 10 January 2017. Retrieved 22 December 2016. Boseley, Matilda (24 October 2020). "Prince Charles's letter to John Kerr reportedly endorsing sacking of Whitlam condemned". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 February 2022. Dathan, Matt; Low, Valentine (10 June 2022). "Prince Charles: Flying migrants to Rwanda is 'appalling'". The Times. Retrieved 11 June 2022.(subscription required); "Rwanda deportation plan: Prince Charles 'says policy is appalling' as court rules first asylum seekers can be sent away". Sky News. 11 June 2022. Retrieved 11 June 2022. Wheeler, Caroline; Shipman, Tim; Nikkah, Roya (12 June 2022). "Charles won't be Prince Charming if he keeps on meddling, say ministers". The Times. Retrieved 3 July 2022.(subscription required) "Charles, Prince of Wales". Planetizen. 13 September 2009. Archived from the original on 16 March 2012. Retrieved 31 March 2012.; "Prince Charles' 60th". 10 interesting facts about Prince Charles. Planned Seniorhood. Archived from the original on 14 June 2012. Retrieved 31 March 2012. Text of the Prince of Wales's speech at the 150th anniversary of the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine Royal Gala Evening at Hampton Court Palace, 30 May 1984. Retrieved 17 June 2012. Dame, Marketing Communications: Web // University of Notre. "Prince Charles honored for his architectural patronage". Notre Dame News. Archived from the original on 24 August 2020. Retrieved 4 October 2017. "The Prince of Wales Accepts Vincent Scully Prize". artdaily.com. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2013. "HRH visits the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies new building". The Prince of Wales. 9 February 2005. Archived from the original on 19 June 2007. Retrieved 15 December 2008. Department of Finance (19 March 2007), The Budget Plan 2007: Aspire to a Stronger, Safer, Better Canada (PDF), Queen's Printer for Canada, p. 99, archived (PDF) from the original on 12 June 2009, retrieved 1 May 2012 "Heritage Services". Heritage Canada Foundation. Archived from the original on 14 September 2008. Retrieved 12 October 2008. Hales, Linda (26 October 2005). "Prince Charles to Accept Scully Prize at Building Museum". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 19 April 2013.; "The Prince of Wales Accepts Vincent Scully Prize". artdaily.com. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2013. "Prince Charles Faces Opponents, Slams Modern Architecture". Bloomberg L.P. 12 May 2009. Retrieved 20 June 2009. "Architects urge boycott of Prince Charles speech". NBC News. 11 May 2009. Archived from the original on 2 January 2014. Retrieved 20 June 2009.; "Architects to hear Prince appeal". BBC News. 12 May 2009. Archived from the original on 2 December 2010. Retrieved 20 June 2009. Booth, Robert (15 June 2009). "Prince Charles's meddling in planning 'unconstitutional', says Richard Rogers". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2009. "Chelsea Barracks developer apologises to Prince Charles". BBC. 24 July 2010. Retrieved 26 June 2022. "About Us". Carpenters' Company website. Archived from the original on 17 July 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2012. Shipwrights, The Worshipful Company of. "Present Officers". The Worshipful Company of Shipwrights. Retrieved 22 January 2023. "Prince Charles honored with HMS's Global Environmental Citizen Award". The Harvard Gazette. 1 February 2007. Archived from the original on 10 March 2021. Retrieved 11 October 2021. Low, Valentine (19 February 2020). "No one is calling my fears over the climate dotty now, says Prince Charles". The Times. Retrieved 31 May 2022. Ferran, Lee (20 September 2010). "Prince Charles Eavesdrops on Tourists, Speaks to Plants". ABC News. Retrieved 31 May 2022. Vidal, John (15 May 2002). "Charles designs 'healing garden'". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 December 2022. "Our Story". Duchyoriginals.com. Archived from the original on 5 October 2012. Retrieved 22 September 2012. Rainey, Sarah (12 November 2013). "Why Prince Charles's Duchy Originals takes the biscuit". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 1 April 2021. Retrieved 30 July 2014. Spangenburg, Ray; Moser, Diane (2004). "Organic and GMO-Free Foods: A Luxury?". Open For Debate: Genetic Engineering. Benchmark Books. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-8129-7980-0. Rosenbaum, Martin (23 January 2019). "Prince Charles warned Tony Blair against GM foods". BBC News. Retrieved 10 May 2022. Myers, Joe (22 January 2020). "This member of the British Royal Family has a vital message if we are to save the planet". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 2 November 2021. Inman, Phillip (3 June 2020). "Pandemic is chance to reset global economy, says Prince Charles". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 17 November 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020. Greenfield, Patrick (11 January 2021). "Prince Charles urges businesses to sign Terra Carta pledge to put planet first". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 15 January 2021. Retrieved 15 January 2021.; Barbiroglio, Emanuela (15 January 2021). "Prince Charles Wants Companies To Raise £7.3bn For His Earth Charter". Forbes. Archived from the original on 1 April 2021. Retrieved 15 January 2021. "HRH Prince Charles and Sir Jony Ive's Terra Carta Design Lab Reveals its 20 Finalists". Royal College of Art. 21 January 2022. Retrieved 22 January 2022.[permanent dead link]; Furness, Hannah (21 January 2022). "Face mask for cows among finalists for Prince Charles' climate crisis prize". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 22 January 2022. Prince Charles and His Battle for Our Planet, retrieved 8 December 2021; Garlick, Hattie (11 October 2021). "How to do the Prince Charles diet – and eat the perfect amount of meat and dairy". The Daily Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 8 December 2021. White, Stephen; Tetzlaff-Deas, Benedict; Munday, David (12 September 2022). "King Charles doesn't eat lunch and works until midnight". CornwallLive. Retrieved 5 October 2022. "King Charles: Foie gras banned at royal residences". BBC News. 18 November 2022. Retrieved 15 December 2022. "Holy oil to be used to anoint King during Coronation is vegan friendly". The Independent. 4 March 2023. Retrieved 28 March 2023. Walker, Peter (31 October 2021). "Cop26 'literally the last chance saloon' to save planet – Prince Charles". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 October 2021. Elbaum, Rachel (1 November 2021). "Prince Charles calls for 'warlike footing' in climate fight as world leaders gather". NBC. Retrieved 2 November 2021. "The Prince of Wales launches climate action scholarships for small island nation students". Prince of Wales. 14 March 2022. Retrieved 1 April 2022. Hay, Katharine (7 September 2022). "Charles pledges partnership with experts to eradicate allergies after girl's death". The Independent. Retrieved 7 September 2022. "King Charles will not attend climate summit on Truss advice". BBC News. 1 October 2022. Retrieved 1 October 2022. Feder, Barnaby J. (9 January 1985). "More Britons Trying Holistic Medicine". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 1 June 2013. Retrieved 12 October 2008. Bower, Tom (2018). "6". Rebel prince : the power, passion and defiance of Prince Charles. London. ISBN 9780008291754. The first hint of his coming campaign had been his 1982 address to the annual conference of the British Medical Association. To celebrate his election as the BMA's new president, he used the invitation to criticise the profession's rejection of alternative or complementary therapies.; The Prince of Wales (December 2012). "Integrated health and post modern medicine". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 105 (12): 496–498. doi:10.1258/jrsm.2012.12k095. PMC 3536513. PMID 23263785. In that same speech to the BMA in 1982, I quoted Paracelsus...; Hamilton-Smith, Anthony (9 April 1990). "Medicine: Complementary And Conventionaltreatments". Retrieved 13 September 2022. In his address to the British Medical Association in 1983, the Prince of Wales voiced his fear that our current preoccupation with the sophistication of modern medicine would divert our attention from: "those ancient, unconscious forces, lying beneath the surface, which will help to shape the psychological attitudes of modern man."; Rainey, Sarah (12 November 2013). "Prince Charles and homeopathy: crank or revolutionary?". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 14 February 2021. Retrieved 22 June 2022. Charles's public devotion to alternative medicine first became clear in an address to the British Medical Association in December 1982 on the 150th anniversary of its foundation Rawlins, Richard (March 2013). "Response to HRH". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 106 (3): 79–80. doi:10.1177/0141076813478789. PMC 3595413. PMID 23481428. the antipathy which greeted his speech to the BMA in 1982; Ernst, Edzard (2022). Charles, the alternative prince an unauthorised biography. ISBN 978-1788360708. The reaction of the BMA to Charles' affront in 1982 was all too predictable; the doctors felt challenged, perhaps even insulted by someone who had used the festive occasion for displaying his own ignorance of their work.; Weissmann, Gerald (September 2006). "Homeopathy: Holmes, Hogwarts, and the Prince of Wales". The FASEB Journal. 20 (11): 1755–1758. doi:10.1096/fj.06-0901ufm. PMID 16940145. S2CID 9305843. he caused a stir by warning the British Medical Association Carr-Brown, Jonathon (14 August 2005). "Charles's 'alternative GP' campaign stirs anger". The Times. Archived from the original on 22 June 2018. Retrieved 11 March 2009.(subscription required) Revill, Jo (27 June 2004). "Now Charles backs coffee cure for cancer". The Observer. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 19 June 2007. Singh, Simon; Ernst, Edzard (2008). Trick or Treatment: Alternative Medicine on Trial. Bantam Press. Walker, Tim (31 October 2009). "Prince Charles lobbies Andy Burnham on complementary medicine for NHS". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 27 March 2010. Retrieved 1 April 2010. Colquhoun, David (12 March 2007). "HRH "meddling in politics"". DC's Improbable Science. Archived from the original on 15 November 2010. Retrieved 6 November 2009. Hawkes, Nigel; Henderson, Mark (1 September 2006). "Doctors attack natural remedy claims". The Times. Archived from the original on 22 June 2018. Retrieved 22 June 2018.(subscription required) FIH (30 April 2010). "Statement from the Prince's Foundation for Integrated Health". Archived from the original on 2 February 2013. Sample, Ian (2 August 2010). "College of Medicine born from ashes of Prince Charles's holistic health charity". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 3 August 2010. Retrieved 24 September 2012. Colquhoun, David (29 October 2010). "Don't be deceived. The new "College of Medicine" is a fraud and delusion". Archived from the original on 11 September 2012. Retrieved 24 September 2012.; Hawkes, Nigel (29 October 2010). "Prince's foundation metamorphoses into new College of Medicine". British Medical Journal. 341 (1): 6126. doi:10.1136/bmj.c6126. ISSN 0959-8138. S2CID 72649598. Archived from the original on 2 December 2010. Retrieved 17 December 2010. "HRH The Prince of Wales is announced as College of Medicine Patron". College of Medicine. 17 December 2019. Retrieved 22 June 2022. Case, Roy (23 September 2019). "A Passion for Polo". Playing Pasts. Retrieved 21 April 2023. Revesz, Rachel (24 July 2017). "Prince Charles secret letters to Tony Blair over fox hunting get information commissioner's green light for publishing". The Independent. Retrieved 21 April 2023. "Prince Charles takes sons hunting". BBC News. 30 October 1999. Retrieved 21 April 2023. A Celebration of Salmon Rivers: The World's Finest Atlantic Salmon Rivers. Edited by John B. Ashton & Adrian Latimer. Stackpole Books, 2007. p. 7. "Prince of Wales supports Burnley football club". The Daily Telegraph. 15 February 2012. Archived from the original on 6 April 2012. Retrieved 29 September 2012. "History". National Rifle Association. Archived from the original on 1 September 2022. Retrieved 13 October 2022. "National Rifle Association". Prince of Wales. Archived from the original on 4 August 2020. Retrieved 13 October 2022. Hallemann, Caroline (5 November 2019). "Vintage Photos of Prince Charles at Cambridge Prove Meghan Markle Isn't the Only Actor in the Royal Family". Town & Country. Retrieved 22 June 2022. "Performing Arts". Prince of Wales official website. Archived from the original on 21 June 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2012. "The Prince of Wales visits the BFI Southbank". Prince of Wales official website. 6 December 2018. Retrieved 28 September 2021. "TRH continue their annual tour of Wales". Prince of Wales website. Archived from the original on 19 November 2007. Retrieved 19 April 2013. Holland, Oscar (12 January 2022). "Prince Charles exhibits dozens of his watercolors, saying painting 'refreshes the soul'". CNN. Retrieved 13 January 2022. "Prince Charles wins art award". BBC News. 12 December 2001. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 22 September 2013. "The Royal Academy Development Trust". Royal Academy. Archived from the original on 21 March 2019. Retrieved 25 January 2019. "D-Day portraits commissioned by Prince Charles go on display". BBC. 6 June 2015. Retrieved 22 November 2022. Coughlan, Sean (10 January 2022). "Prince Charles commissions Holocaust survivor portraits". BBC. Retrieved 11 January 2022. "HRH the Prince of Wales : A Vision of Britain". BFI. Archived from the original on 10 September 2011. Retrieved 1 May 2012.; "Harmony Movie Website". The Harmony Movie. Archived from the original on 1 May 2012. Retrieved 1 May 2012.; The Prince and the Composer, BBC Four, 1 May 2012; "Modern TV: The Princes Welsh Village". Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Davies, Caroline (16 September 2022). "King tells faith leaders he has personal 'duty to protect diversity of our country'". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 December 2022.. "The Queen, the Church and other faiths". Official website of the British monarchy. Retrieved 21 September 2022. "King Charles vows to protect the security of the Church of Scotland" (Press release). The Church of Scotland. 10 September 2022. Retrieved 14 September 2022. Holden 1979, pp. 141–142. "Prince and Camilla attend church". BBC News. 13 February 2005. Archived from the original on 4 August 2017. Retrieved 25 September 2012. Hellen, Nicholas; Morgan, Christopher; Woods, Richard (13 February 2005). "Focus: The court of King Charles". The Times. Retrieved 31 December 2022. Barr, Sabrina (26 January 2020). "Queen gives Prince William new role as Meghan and Harry step back from royal duties". The Independent. Retrieved 31 December 2022. Garner, Clare (17 December 1996). "Prince's guru dies aged 90". The Independent. Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. Retrieved 31 March 2012. "African author Laurens van der Post dies in London". Irish Times. 17 December 1996. Archived from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 8 February 2020. "Review: In Harmony with a Philosopher King". philosophyinwessex.org. 4 January 2012. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 30 July 2014.; "It's time for harmony between science and spirituality". positivenews.org.uk. 29 March 2013. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 30 July 2014.; "Books of the Year – Harmony and Farundell". 6 December 2010. Archived from the original on 5 August 2014. Retrieved 30 July 2014. "2011 Nautilus Awards Gold Winners". Nautilus Book Awards. Archived from the original on 19 December 2011. Retrieved 11 May 2013. "Cardinal Newman declared a saint by the Pope". BBC News. 13 October 2019. Archived from the original on 20 October 2019. Retrieved 25 February 2020. Smith, Helena (12 May 2004). "Has Prince Charles found his true spiritual home on a Greek rock?". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 1 April 2021. Retrieved 25 September 2012. "Prinţul Charles, fermier de Fălticeni" [Prince Charles, farm owner in Fălticeni]. Evenimentul Zilei (in Romanian). 13 May 2003. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. "Princ Čarls u manastiru Kovilj". Ekspres.net (in Serbian). Retrieved 9 September 2022. "Prince Charles wishes Palestinians 'freedom, justice and equality'". The Guardian. 24 January 2020. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.; "Charles arrives in Bethlehem during historic Palestinian visit". ITV News. 24 January 2020. Archived from the original on 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020. "Britain's first Syriac Orthodox Cathedral consecrated". Anglican Communion News Service. 25 November 2016. "About OCIS". Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies. Archived from the original on 28 October 2007.; MarkfieldInstitute (29 January 2009), Introduction to MIHE, archived from the original on 8 March 2021, retrieved 29 April 2017 Sullivan, Kevin; Boorstein, Michelle (13 September 2022). "King Charles III may bring new approach to 'Defender of the Faith'". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 13 September 2022. Retrieved 13 September 2022. Sherwood, Harriet (9 September 2022). "King Charles to be Defender of the Faith but also a defender of faiths". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 September 2022. "Charles vows to keep "Defender of the Faith" title as King". secularism.org.uk. Archived from the original on 15 July 2015. Retrieved 24 July 2015. Coughlan, Sean (26 December 2022). "King Charles' first Christmas speech reflects cost-of-living crisis". BBC. Retrieved 30 December 2022. Bartlett, Mike. "King Charles III". www.almeida.co.uk. Archived from the original on 5 August 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2014. "The Man who will be King". The Milwaukee Journal. Google news. 1 October 1979. Archived from the original on 23 April 2016. Retrieved 30 July 2014. "Patrick Jephson: Prince Charles Was Unable to Reconcile with Princess Diana's Extraordinary Popularity". The Independent. 31 August 2016. Archived from the original on 21 February 2017. Retrieved 2 February 2017. Davies, Caroline (7 November 2018). "Prince Charles: 'Me, meddle as a king? I'm not that stupid'". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 June 2022. Barnes, Tom (2 January 2019). "Almost half of British public want Prince Charles to give throne to William upon Queen's death, survey finds". The Independent. Retrieved 8 September 2022. Kirk, Isabelle. "Public opinion of Prince Charles improves in latest royal favourability poll". YouGov. Retrieved 8 September 2022. "Queen Elizabeth II passes away, Prince Charles succeeds as king". The Statesman (India). 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022. Smith, Matthew (13 September 2022). "Britons' first impressions of King Charles III | YouGov". yougov.co.uk. Retrieved 14 December 2022. "King Charles III popularity and fame". YouGov. Retrieved 16 April 2023. Williams, Rhys (7 September 1994). "'Hunky' Prince is exposed to public gaze". The Independent. Retrieved 18 July 2022. "German Tabloid Publishes Photo of Nude Prince Charles". Los Angeles Times. 8 September 1994. Retrieved 18 July 2022. London's first daily newspaper, the Daily Courant, was published in 1702. Woods, Audrey (11 March 2002). "Prince Charles Addresses Editors". AP News Archive. Archived from the original on 18 September 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2012. "Transcript: Princes' comments". BBC News. 31 March 2005. Archived from the original on 12 January 2009. Retrieved 2 October 2012. "Charles 'adopted dissident role'". BBC News. 21 February 2006. Archived from the original on 2 December 2010. Retrieved 2 October 2012. Rainey, Sarah; Blenkinsop, Andrew (13 July 2011). "Phone hacking: who's who in the News International scandal". The Telegraph. Retrieved 19 December 2022. Burrell, Ian (2 December 2015). "The 15-page contract that reveals how Charles tries to control the media". The Independent. Retrieved 21 April 2022. Pegg, David. "Revealed: King Charles's private fortune estimated at £1.8bn". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 April 2023. "Clarence House". www.royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 13 June 2013. Retrieved 1 May 2014. "Prince Charles moves into Clarence House". BBC News. 2 August 2003. Retrieved 20 August 2022. "Living off the State: A Critical Guide to UK Royal Finance" Jon Temple, 2nd Edition, 2012 "Sovereign Grant Act 2011: guidance". www.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 27 January 2016. Retrieved 3 December 2017. Booth, Robert (14 December 2012). "Prince Charles's £700m estate accused of tax avoidance". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 18 April 2013. Munzinger, Hannes; Osborne, Hilary (8 November 2017). "Prinz Charles und seine Offshore-Geschäfte". Süddeutsche Zeitung. Retrieved 21 April 2023. Washington, Stuart (8 November 2017). "Paradise Papers: Prince Charles's estate, the Duchy of Cornwall, invested through Caribbean tax havens". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 21 April 2023. "King Charles: New royal cypher revealed". BBC News. 26 September 2022. Retrieved 26 September 2022. "The London Gazette, Issue 38452, Page 5889". 9 November 1948. "HRH The Duke of Edinburgh". College of Arms. 9 April 2021. Archived from the original on 11 April 2021. Retrieved 7 May 2021.; "Prince Philip's Duke of Edinburgh title will pass to another royal when Charles is king". 9Honey. 12 April 2021. Archived from the original on 24 June 2021. Retrieved 20 June 2021. "Who is Duke of Edinburgh now?". National World. 12 September 2022. Guy Jones (28 November 1958). "Motto may be more to Charles than to any of predecessors". Newspapers.com. p. 15. Retrieved 1 March 2023. David Gaddis Smith (3 May 1981). "Prince seeks to uphold popularity of monarchy". Newport News. Retrieved 1 March 2023 – via Newspapers.com. "Londoner's Diary: Princely glove is not picked up". Evening Standard. 29 April 1987. Retrieved 1 March 2023 – via Newspapers.com. Christopher Morgan (13 February 2000). "Charles prefers George VII for his kingly title". Calgary Herald. Retrieved 1 March 2023 – via Newspapers.com. Phil Boucher (15 August 2018). "Here's Why Prince Charles Could be Called George VII When He's KingHere's Why Prince Charles Could Be Called George VII When He's King". People. Retrieved 1 March 2023. Pierce, Andrew (24 December 2005). "Call me George, suggests Charles". The Times. Archived from the original on 22 June 2018. Retrieved 13 July 2009. Cruse, Beth (23 May 2021). "The 4 names Prince Charles could choose when he becomes king". Nottingham Post. Retrieved 28 February 2023. White, Michael (27 December 2005). "Charles denies planning to reign as King George". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 2 October 2012. "Accession of Charles III: 'A monarch's choice of name is not a trivial thing'". Le Monde. 8 September 2022. Retrieved 1 March 2023. "Charles chooses Charles III for his title as King". The Independent (UK). 9 September 2022. Retrieved 16 April 2023. "Britain's new monarch to be known as King Charles III". Reuters. 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022. "The Prince of Wales visits the Royal Gurkha Rifles and Knole House". Prince of Wales. Archived from the original on 2 May 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2014. "The Queen Appoints the Prince of Wales to Honorary Five-Star rank". The Prince of Wales website. 16 June 2012. Archived from the original on 29 June 2012. Retrieved 27 June 2012.; "Prince Charles awarded highest rank in all three armed forces". The Daily Telegraph. 16 June 2012. Archived from the original on 16 June 2012. Retrieved 7 June 2012.; "No. 60350". The London Gazette. 7 December 2012. p. 23557. "Royal Cypher". College of Arms. Retrieved 28 September 2022. "Standards". Prince of Wales. Archived from the original on 7 June 2016. Retrieved 31 August 2016. "The Prince of Wales". Public Register of Arms, Flags and Badges. Office of the Governor General of Canada: Canadian Heraldic Authority. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 4 January 2016. Paget, Gerald (1977). The Lineage and Ancestry of H.R.H. Prince Charles, Prince of Wales (2 vols). Edinburgh: Charles Skilton. ISBN 978-0-284-40016-1. Sources Brandreth, Gyles (2007). Charles and Camilla: Portrait of a Love Affair. Random House. ISBN 978-0-0994-9087-6. Dimbleby, Jonathan (1994). The Prince of Wales: A Biography. William Morrow and Company. ISBN 0-6881-2996-X. Holden, Anthony (1979). Prince Charles. Atheneum. ISBN 978-0-593-02470-6. Junor, Penny (2005). The Firm: The Troubled Life of the House of Windsor. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-3123-5274-5. OCLC 59360110. Lacey, Robert (2008). Monarch: The Life and Reign of Elizabeth II. Free Press. ISBN 978-1-4391-0839-0. Smith, Sally Bedell (2000). Diana in Search of Herself: Portrait of a Troubled Princess. Signet. ISBN 978-0-4512-0108-9. Further reading Benson, Ross (1994). Charles: The Untold Story. St Martins Press. ISBN 978-0-3121-0950-9. Bower, Tom (2018). The Rebel Prince, The Power, Passion and Defiance of Prince Charles. William Collins. ISBN 978-0-0082-9173-0. Brown, Michèle (1980). Prince Charles. Crown. ISBN 978-0-5175-4019-0. Campbell, J. (1981). Charles: Prince of Our Times. Smithmark. ISBN 978-0-7064-0968-0. Cathcart, Helen (1977). Prince Charles: The biography (illustrated ed.). Taplinger Pub. Co; Ltd. ISBN 978-0-8008-6555-9. Fisher, Graham; Fisher, Heather (1977). Charles: The Man and the Prince. Robert Hale. ISBN 978-0-7091-6095-3. Gilleo, Alma (1978). Prince Charles: Growing Up in Buckingham Palace. Childs World. ISBN 978-0-8956-5029-0. Graham, Caroline (2005). Camilla and Charles: The Love Story. John Blake. ISBN 978-1-8445-4195-9. Heald, Tim; Mohrs, Mayo (1979). The Man Who Will Be King H.R.H. (Prince of Wales Charles). New York: Arbor House. Hedley, Olwen (1969). Charles, 21st Prince of Wales. Pitkin Pictorials. ISBN 978-0-85372-027-0. Hodgson, Howard (2007). Charles: The Man Who Will Be King (illustrated ed.). John Blake Publishing. ISBN 978-1-8445-4306-9. Holden, Anthony (1988). King Charles III: A Biography. Grove. ISBN 978-1-5558-4309-0. — (1998). Charles at Fifty. Random House. ISBN 978-0-3755-0175-3. — (1999). Charles: A Biography. Corgi Books. ISBN 978-0-5529-9744-7. Jencks, Charles (1988). Prince, Architects & New Wave Monarchy. Rizzoli. ISBN 978-0-8478-1010-9. Jobson, Robert (2018). Charles at Seventy – Thoughts, Hopes & Dreams: Thoughts, Hopes and Dreams. John Blake. ISBN 978-1-7860-6887-3. Junor, Penny (1998). Charles: Victim or Villain?. Harper Collins. ISBN 978-0-0025-5900-3. Lane, Peter (1988). Prince Charles: a study in development. Robert Hale. ISBN 978-0-7090-3320-2. Liversidge, Douglas (1975). Prince Charles: monarch in the making. A. Barker. ISBN 978-0-2131-6568-0. Martin, Christopher (1990). Prince Charles and the Architectural Debate (Architectural Design Profile). St Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-3120-4048-2. Mayer, Catherine (2015). Born to Be King: Prince Charles on Planet Windsor. Henry Holt and Co. ISBN 978-1-6277-9438-1. — (2015). Charles: The Heart of a King. Random House. ISBN 978-0-7535-5593-4. Nugent, Jean (1982). Prince Charles, England's Future King. Dillon. ISBN 978-0-87518-226-1. Regan, Simon (1977). Charles, the Clown Prince. Everest Books. ISBN 978-0-9050-1850-8. Smith, Sally Bedell (2017). Prince Charles: The Passions and Paradoxes of an Improbable Life. Random House Trade Paperbacks. ISBN 978-0-8129-7980-0. Veon, Joan M. (1997). Prince Charles: The Sustainable Prince. Hearthstone. ISBN 978-1-5755-8021-0. Wakeford, Geoffrey (1962). Charles, Prince of Wales. Associated Newspapers. External links The King at the Royal Family website King Charles III at the website of the Government of Canada Charles III at IMDb Appearances on C-SPAN Charles III House of Windsor Cadet branch of the House of Oldenburg Born: 14 November 1948 Regnal titles Preceded by Elizabeth II King of the United Kingdom, Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, the Bahamas, Belize, Canada, Grenada, Jamaica, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu 8 September 2022 – present Incumbent Heir apparent: The Prince of Wales British royalty Vacant Title last held by Edward (VIII) Prince of Wales 26 July 1958 – 8 September 2022 Succeeded by The Prince William Duke of Cornwall Duke of Rothesay 6 February 1952 – 8 September 2022 Peerage of the United Kingdom Preceded by The Prince Philip Duke of Edinburgh 9 April 2021 – 8 September 2022 Merged with the Crown Academic offices Preceded by The Earl Mountbatten of Burma President of the United World Colleges 1978–1995 Succeeded by The Queen of Jordan Preceded by Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother President of the Royal College of Music 1993–present Incumbent Honorary titles Preceded by The Duke of Gloucester Great Master of the Order of the Bath 10 June 1974 – 8 September 2022 Vacant Preceded by Elizabeth II Head of the Commonwealth 8 September 2022 – present Incumbent Order of precedence First Orders of precedence in the United Kingdom HM The King Succeeded by The Prince of Wales vte Charles III King of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms (2022–present) Realms Antigua and BarbudaAustraliaBahamasBelizeCanadaGrenadaJamaicaNew ZealandPapua New GuineaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSolomon IslandsTuvaluUnited Kingdom Titles and honours Head of the CommonwealthDefender of the FaithSupreme Governor of the Church of EnglandHead of the British Armed ForcesCommander-in-Chief of the Canadian Armed ForcesLord of MannDuke of NormandyKing's Official Birthday Family Camilla Shand (wife)Diana Spencer (former wife)William, Prince of Wales (elder son)Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex (younger son)Elizabeth II (mother)Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (father)Anne, Princess Royal (sister)Prince Andrew, Duke of York (brother)Prince Edward, Duke of Edinburgh (brother)Mountbatten-Windsor (family) Life as Prince of Wales Investiture of the Prince of WalesFirst wedding guest listSecond wedding2022 State Opening of ParliamentBlack spider memosPrince of Wales v Associated Newspapers Ltd Accession and coronation Proclamation of accessionCoronation guest listCoronation quiche Reign HouseholdPrime ministersOperation Menai BridgeState and official visits Charities and campaigns Mutton Renaissance CampaignThe Prince's Charities British Asian TrustBusiness in the CommunityChildren & the ArtsIn Kind Directiwill CampaignThe Prince's Countryside FundThe Prince's FoundationThe Prince's Foundation for Integrated HealthThe Prince's School of Traditional ArtsThe Prince of Wales's Charitable FundRoyal Drawing SchoolTurquoise Mountain FoundationYouth Business ScotlandThe Prince's May Day NetworkThe Prince's TrustSustainable Markets Initiative Great Reset Residences As King Buckingham Palace (official)Windsor Castle (official)Holyrood Palace (official, Scotland)Hillsborough Castle (official, Northern Ireland)Sandringham House (private)Balmoral Castle (private)Craigowan Lodge (private) As Prince of Wales Clarence House (official)Highgrove House (private)BirkhallLlwynywermod Awards given and created List of awards receivedPrince of Wales's Intelligence Community AwardsPrince of Wales Prize for Municipal Heritage LeadershipThe Sun Military Awards Business ventures Duchy Home FarmDumfries HouseHighgrove House ShopsPoundburyWaitrose Duchy Organic Depictions Televised addresses Royal address to the nationRoyal Christmas Message Documentaries Royal Family (1969)Charles: The Private Man, the Public Role (1994)Monarchy: The Royal Family at Work (2007)Elizabeth at 90: A Family Tribute (2016) Film and television Chorus Girls (1981)Charles & Diana: A Royal Love Story (1982)The Royal Romance of Charles and Diana (1982)Spitting Image (1984–1996, 2020–2021)Charles and Diana: Unhappily Ever After (1992)Willi und die Windzors (1996)Whatever Love Means (2005)The Queen (2006 film)The Queen (2009 TV serial)King Charles III (2017 film)The Windsors (2016–2020 TV series)The Crown (2016–)The Prince (2021) Plays Her Royal Highness..? (1981)King Charles III (2014)Diana (2019/2021)The Windsors: Endgame (2021) Music Buckingham Blues (1983)Prince Charles (1986) Bibliography The Old Man of Lochnagar (1980)A Vision of Britain: A Personal View of Architecture (1989)Harmony: A New Way of Looking at Our World (2010)Climate Change (2023) Eponyms Prince Charles IslandPrince Charles stream tree frog ← Elizabeth II Links to related articles vte English, Scottish and British monarchs Monarchs of England until 1603 Monarchs of Scotland until 1603 Æthelstan (from 927)Edmund IEadredEadwigEdgar the PeacefulEdward the MartyrÆthelred the UnreadySweynEdmund Ironsidecnu*tHarold IHarthacnu*tEdward the ConfessorHarold GodwinsonEdgar ÆthelingWilliam IWilliam IIHenry IStephenMatildaHenry IIHenry the Young KingRichard IJohnLouisHenry IIIEdward IEdward IIEdward IIIRichard IIHenry IVHenry VHenry VIEdward IVEdward VRichard IIIHenry VIIHenry VIIIEdward VIJaneMary I and PhilipElizabeth I Kenneth I MacAlpinDonald IConstantine IÁedGiricEochaidDonald IIConstantine IIMalcolm IIndulfDubCuilénAmlaíbKenneth IIConstantine IIIKenneth IIIMalcolm IIDuncan IMacbethLulachMalcolm IIIDonald IIIDuncan IIEdgarAlexander IDavid IMalcolm IVWilliam IAlexander IIAlexander IIIMargaretJohnRobert IDavid IIEdward BalliolRobert IIRobert IIIJames IJames IIJames IIIJames IVJames VMary IJames VI Monarchs of England and Scotland after the Union of the Crowns from 1603 James I and VICharles IThe Protectorate Oliver CromwellRichard CromwellCharles IIJames II and VIIWilliam III and II and Mary IIAnne British monarchs after the Acts of Union 1707 AnneGeorge IGeorge IIGeorge IIIGeorge IVWilliam IVVictoriaEdward VIIGeorge VEdward VIIIGeorge VIElizabeth IICharles III Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics. vte Order of precedence in the United Kingdom (gentlemen) Shared (royal family) The KingThe Prince of Wales (in Scotland: the Duke of Rothesay)The Duke of Sussex (in Scotland: the Earl of Dumbarton)Prince George of WalesPrince Louis of WalesPrince Archie of SussexThe Duke of York (in Scotland: the Earl of Inverness)The Duke of EdinburghEarl of WessexPeter PhillipsThe Duke of GloucesterThe Duke of KentThe Earl of SnowdonPrince Michael of Kent England and Wales Justin Welby, Archbishop of CanterburyDominic Raab, Lord ChancellorStephen Cottrell, Archbishop of YorkRishi Sunak, Prime Minister of the United KingdomSir Lindsay Hoyle, Speaker of the House of CommonsThe Lord McFall of Alcluith, Lord SpeakerThe Lord Reed of Allermuir, President of the Supreme Court of the United KingdomThe Lord Burnett of Maldon, Lord Chief Justice of England and WalesThe Lord True, Lord Privy SealAmbassadors and High CommissionersThe Baron Carrington, Lord Great ChamberlainThe Duke of Norfolk, Earl MarshalThe Earl of Rosslyn, Lord StewardThe Lord Parker of Minsmere, Lord ChamberlainThe Lord de Mauley, Master of the Horse Scotland Lord LieutenantsSheriffs PrincipalDominic Raab, Lord High ChancellorIain Greenshields, Moderator of the General AssemblyRishi Sunak, Prime Minister of the United KingdomAlister Jack, Secretary of State for ScotlandThe Earl of Erroll, Lord High Constable of ScotlandThe Duke of Argyll, Master of the Household in Scotland Northern Ireland Lords Lieutenant of counties and citiesHigh sheriffs of countiesJohn McDowell, Archbishop of Armagh (Church of Ireland)Eamon Martin, Archbishop of Armagh (Roman Catholic)Dermot Farrell, Archbishop of Dublin (Roman Catholic)Michael Jackson, Archbishop of Dublin (Church of Ireland)Rt Rev Dr John Kirkpatrick, Moderator of the Presbyterian ChurchLord Mayor of Belfast and Mayors of boroughs in Northern IrelandDominic Raab, Lord High ChancellorRishi Sunak, Prime Minister of the United KingdomSir Lindsay Hoyle, Commons SpeakerThe Lord McFall of Alcluith, Lord SpeakerThe Baron Carrington, Lord Great ChamberlainThe Duke of Norfolk, Earl MarshalThe Earl of Rosslyn, Lord StewardThe Lord Parker of Minsmere, Lord ChamberlainThe Lord de Mauley, Master of the Horse not including short-term appointments, visiting dignitaries and most peers vte British princes The generations indicate descent from George I, who formalised the use of the titles prince and princess for members of the British royal family. 1st generation King George II 2nd generation Frederick, Prince of WalesPrince George WilliamPrince William, Duke of Cumberland 3rd generation King George IIIPrince Edward, Duke of York and AlbanyPrince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and EdinburghPrince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and StrathearnPrince Frederick 4th generation King George IVPrince Frederick, Duke of York and AlbanyKing William IVPrince Edward, Duke of Kent and StrathearnKing Ernest Augustus of HanoverPrince Augustus Frederick, Duke of SussexPrince Adolphus, Duke of CambridgePrince OctaviusPrince AlfredPrince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh 5th generation Prince Albert1King George V of HanoverPrince George, Duke of Cambridge 6th generation King Edward VIIPrince Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and GothaPrince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and StrathearnPrince Leopold, Duke of AlbanyPrince Ernest Augustus 7th generation Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and AvondaleKing George VPrince Alexander John of WalesAlfred, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and GothaPrince Arthur of ConnaughtPrince Charles Edward, Duke of Albany and of Saxe-Coburg and GothaPrince George William of HanoverPrince Christian of HanoverPrince Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick 8th generation King Edward VIIIKing George VIPrince Henry, Duke of GloucesterPrince George, Duke of KentPrince JohnAlastair, 2nd Duke of Connaught and StrathearnJohann Leopold, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and GothaPrince Hubertus of Saxe-Coburg and GothaPrince Ernest Augustus of HanoverPrince George William of Hanover 9th generation Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh2Prince William of GloucesterPrince Richard, Duke of GloucesterPrince Edward, Duke of KentPrince Michael of Kent 10th generation King Charles IIIPrince Andrew, Duke of YorkPrince Edward, Duke of Edinburgh 11th generation William, Prince of WalesPrince Harry, Duke of SussexJames, Earl of Wessex 12th generation Prince George of WalesPrince Louis of WalesPrince Archie of Sussex 1 Not a British prince by birth, but created Prince Consort. 2 Not a British prince by birth, but created a Prince of the United Kingdom. Princes whose titles were removed and eligible people who do not use the title are shown in italics. vte Princes of Wales Edward (1301–1307)Edward (1343–1376)Richard (1376–1377)Henry (1399–1413)Edward (1454–1471)Richard (1460; disputed)Edward (1471–1483)Edward (1483–1484)Arthur (1489–1502)Henry (1504–1509)Edward (1537–1547)Henry (1610–1612)Charles (1616–1625)Charles (1641–1649)James (1688)George (1714–1727)Frederick (1728–1751)George (1751–1760)George (1762–1820)Albert Edward (1841–1901)George (1901–1910)Edward (1910–1936)Charles (1958–2022)William (2022–present) See also: Principality of Wales vte Dukes of Cornwall Edward (1337–1376)Richard (1376–1377)Henry (1399–1413)Henry (1421–1422)Edward (1453–1471)Richard (1460; disputed)Edward (1470–1483)Edward (1483–1484)Arthur (1486–1502)Henry (1502–1509)Henry (1511)Edward (1537–1547)Henry Frederick (1603–1612)Charles (1612–1625)Charles (1630–1649)James (1688–1701/2)George (1714–1727)Frederick (1727–1751)George (1762–1820)Albert Edward (1841–1901)George (1901–1910)Edward (1910–1936)Charles (1952–2022)William (2022–present) Cornwall Portal vte Dukes of Rothesay David (1398–1402)James (1402–1406)Alexander (1430)James (1430–1437)James (1452–1460)James (1473–1488)James (1507–1508)Arthur (1509–1510)James (1512–1513)James (1540–1541)James (1566–1567)Henry Frederick (1594–1612)Charles (1612–1625)Charles James (1629)Charles (1630–1649)James (1688–1689)George (1714–1727)Frederick (1727–1751)George (1762–1820)Albert Edward (1841–1901)George (1901–1910)Edward (1910–1936)Charles (1952–2022)William (2022–present) vte Dukes of Edinburgh Frederick (1726–1751)George (1751–1760)Dukes of Gloucester and Edinburgh (1764–1834)Alfred (1866–1900)Philip (1947–2021)Charles (2021–2022)Edward (2023–present) vte Monarchs of Canada House of Hanover (1867–1901) Victoria House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (1901–1917) Edward VIIGeorge V House of Windsor (1917–present) George VEdward VIIIGeorge VIElizabeth IICharles III vte Heads of state of Jamaica Monarch (from 1962) Elizabeth IICharles III flag Jamaica portal Governor-General (from 1962) BlackburneCampbellGlasspoleCookeHallAllen vte Current monarchs of sovereign states Africa Eswatini Mswati IIILesotho Letsie IIIMorocco Mohammed VI Americas Antigua and Barbuda The Bahamas Belize Canada Grenada Jamaica Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Charles III Asia Bahrain Hamad bin Isa Al KhalifaBhutan Jigme Khesar Namgyel WangchuckBrunei Hassanal BolkiahCambodia Norodom SihamoniJapan NaruhitoJordan Abdullah IIKuwait Nawaf Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-SabahMalaysia Abdullah of PahangOman Haitham bin TariqQatar Tamim bin Hamad Al ThaniSaudi Arabia SalmanThailand VajiralongkornUnited Arab Emirates Mohamed bin Zayed Al Nahyan Europe Andorra Joan Enric Vives i Sicília and Emmanuel MacronBelgium PhilippeDenmark Margrethe IILiechtenstein Hans-Adam IILuxembourg HenriMonaco Albert IIKingdom of the Netherlands Willem-AlexanderNorway Harald VSpain Felipe VISweden Carl XVI GustafUnited Kingdom Charles IIIVatican City Francis Oceania Australia Cook Islands New Zealand Niue Papua New Guinea Solomon Islands Tuvalu Charles IIITonga Tupou VI See also: Current heirs of sovereign monarchies vte Heads of state of the G20 Argentina FernándezAustralia Charles IIIBrazil LulaCanada Charles IIIChina XiEuropean Union MichelFrance MacronGermany SteinmeierIndia MurmuIndonesia JokowiItaly MattarellaJapan NaruhitoMexico López ObradorRussia PutinSaudi Arabia SalmanSouth Africa RamaphosaSouth Korea YoonTurkey ErdoğanFlag of the United Kingdom (3-5).svg Charles IIIUnited States Biden vte Great Masters of the Order of the Bath John Montagu, 2nd Duke of MontaguPrince Frederick, Duke of York and AlbanyPrince William, Duke of Clarence and St AndrewsPrince Augustus Frederick, Duke of SussexAlbert, Prince ConsortAlbert Edward, Prince of WalesPrince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and StrathearnPrince Henry, Duke of GloucesterCharles, Prince of Wales CivilKnightsGrandCrossoftheBath.JPG vte Monarchies MonarchImperial, royal and noble ranksList of current sovereign monarchsList of current non-sovereign monarchsList of monarchy referendums Type AbsoluteConstitutionalDiarchyElectiveFederalHereditaryNon-sovereignPersonal unionRegency Topics AbdicationAbolition of monarchyAristocracyCriticism of monarchyDemocratizationDecolonizationDynastyGovernmentHead of stateLegitimacy (political)OligarchyOrder of successionRepublicanismSelf-proclaimed monarchySovereignty Titles ChhatrapatiEmperorKing Queen regnantPrince regnantRajakhanTsarSultanShahPharaoh Current Africa EswatiniLesothom*oroccolist Asia BahrainBhutanBruneiCambodiaJapanJordanKuwaitMalaysiaOmanQatarSaudi ArabiaThailandUnited Arab Emirateslist Europe AndorraBelgiumDenmarkLiechtensteinLuxembourgMonacoNetherlandsNorwaySpainSwedenVatican City Oceania Tonga Commonwealth realms Antigua and BarbudaAustraliaBahamasBelizeCanadaGrenadaJamaicaNew Zealand Cook IslandsNiuePapua New GuineaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSolomon IslandsTuvaluUnited Kingdom Former Africa AdamawaAnkoleAussaBarotselandBagirmiBornuBurundiCentral AfricaDahomeyEgyptEthiopiaGhanaGommaGummaKaffaKongoLibyaLubaMadagascarMaliMaoreMaraviMwaliNdzuwaniNgazidjaRwandaShillukIslands of RefreshmentTunisiaWitulandWassoulouYekeZanzibarZimbabweand other Americas AraucaníaAztecBrazilHaitiIncaMexicoMiskitoSurinameTalamancaTrinidadThirteen Colonies Asia AfghanistanAsirBangladeshBukharaBurmaCebuChehabChinaDapitanHejazIndonesiaIran (Qajar)IraqJabal ShammarKandy (Sri Lanka)KathiriKhivaKoreaKumulKurdistanLaosMaguindanaoMahraMaldivesManchukuoMongoliaNajranNepalQu'aitiRyukyuSarawakShanSikkimSip Song Chau TaiSuluSyriaTibetTaiwanUpper AsirUpper YafaVietnamYemen (South Yemen) Europe AlbaniaAragonAsturiasAustriaAustria-HungaryBavariaBosniaBrittanyBulgariaCrimeaCiliciaCorsicaCyprusFinlandFranceGaliciaGeorgiaGermanyGreeceGranadaHanoverHungaryIcelandImeretiIrelandItalyKartli-KakhetiLithuaniaMajorcaManMoldaviaMontenegroNavarreNeuchâtelOttoman EmpirePapal StatesPiedmont-SardiniaPoland–LithuaniaPortugalPrussiaRomaniaRussiaSamosSaxonySavoyScotlandSerbiaTavolaraTwo SiciliesTuscanyUkraineUnited Baltic DuchyYugoslaviaValenciaWürttemberg Oceania AbemamaBora BoraEaster IslandKingdom of FijiHawaiiHuahineMangarevaNiuē-FekaiNuku HivaRaiateaRapa ItiRarotongaRimataraRurutuTahuataTahiti Commonwealth realms BarbadosCeylon (Sri Lanka)FijiThe GambiaGhanaGuyanaIndia (British Raj, princely states)Irish Free State / IrelandKenyaMalawiMaltaMauritiusNigeriaPakistanRhodesiaSierra LeoneSouth AfricaTanganyikaTrinidad and TobagoUganda Portals: icon Monarchy flag United Kingdom flag England flag Cornwall icon London flag Scotland flag Wales icon Northern Ireland flag Australia flag Belize flag Canada flag Jamaica flag New Zealand flag Tuvalu Charles III at Wikipedia's sister projects: Media from Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Authority control Edit this at Wikidata International FASTISNI 2VIAFWorldCat National NorwaySpainFranceBnF dataArgentinaCataloniaGermanyIsraelFinlandBelgiumUnited StatesSwedenLatviaJapanCzech RepublicAustraliaKoreaNetherlandsPoland Academics CiNii Artists MusicBrainzULAN People Deutsche BiographieTroveUK Parliament Other NARARISMSNACIdRef Categories: Charles III1948 birthsLiving people20th-century British philanthropists20th-century English male writers21st-century British monarchs21st-century philanthropists21st-century English male writersAlumni of Aberystwyth UniversityAlumni of Trinity College, CambridgeBarons GreenwichBritish field marshalsBritish princesChildren of Elizabeth IIDeified peopleDukes of CornwallDukes of EdinburghDukes of RothesayEarls of MerionethEnglish AnglicansEnglish environmentalistsEnglish people of Danish descentEnglish people of German descentEnglish people of Greek descentEnglish people of Russian descentEnglish people of Scottish descentGraduates of the Royal Air Force College CranwellHeads of the CommonwealthHeads of state of Antigua and BarbudaHeads of state of AustraliaHeads of state of the BahamasHeads of state of BelizeHeads of state of CanadaHeads of state of GrenadaHeads of state of JamaicaHeads of state of New ZealandHeads of state of Papua New GuineaHeads of state of Saint Kitts and NevisHeads of state of Saint LuciaHeads of state of Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesHeads of state of the Solomon IslandsHeads of state of TuvaluHeirs to the British throneHereditary peers removed under the House of Lords Act 1999Honorary air commodoresHouse of WindsorMarshals of the Royal Air ForceMonarchs of the Isle of ManMonarchs of the United KingdomMountbatten-Windsor familyPeople educated at Cheam SchoolPeople educated at Geelong Grammar SchoolPeople educated at GordonstounPeople educated at Hill House SchoolPeople from WestminsterPeople of the National Rifle AssociationPeople named in the Paradise PapersPhilanthropists from LondonPrinces of WalesRoyal Navy admirals of the fleetSustainability advocatesWriters from LondonSons of monarchs Diana, Princess of Wales (born Diana Frances Spencer; 1 July 1961 – 31 August 1997), was a member of the British royal family. She was the first wife of King Charles III (then Prince of Wales) and mother of Prince William and Prince Harry. Her activism and glamour made her an international icon, and earned her enduring popularity. Diana was born into the British nobility, and grew up close to the royal family on their Sandringham estate. In 1981, while working as a nursery teacher's assistant, she became engaged to Charles, the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II. Their wedding took place at St Paul's Cathedral in 1981 and made her Princess of Wales, a role in which she was enthusiastically received by the public. The couple had two sons, William and Harry, who were then respectively second and third in the line of succession to the British throne. Diana's marriage to Charles suffered due to their incompatibility and extramarital affairs. They separated in 1992, soon after the breakdown of their relationship became public knowledge. Their marital difficulties were widely publicised, and the couple divorced in 1996. As Princess of Wales, Diana undertook royal duties on behalf of Elizabeth II and represented her at functions across the Commonwealth realms. She was celebrated in the media for her unconventional approach to charity work. Her patronages were initially centred on children and the elderly, but she later became known for her involvement in two particular campaigns: one involved the social attitudes towards and the acceptance of AIDS patients, and the other for the removal of landmines, promoted through the International Red Cross. She also raised awareness and advocated for ways to help people affected by cancer and mental illness. Diana was initially noted for her shyness, but her charisma and friendliness endeared her to the public and helped her reputation survive the acrimonious collapse of her marriage. Considered photogenic, she was a leader of fashion in the 1980s and 1990s. Diana's death in a car crash in Paris in 1997 led to extensive public mourning and global media attention. An inquest returned a verdict of "unlawful killing" following Operation Paget, an investigation by the London Metropolitan Police. Her legacy has had a deep impact on the royal family and British society The wedding of Prince Charles (later King Charles III) and Lady Diana Spencer took place on Wednesday, 29 July 1981,[1] at St Paul's Cathedral in London, United Kingdom. The groom was the heir apparent to the British throne, and the bride was a member of the Spencer family. The ceremony was a traditional Church of England wedding service. Alan Webster, Dean of St Paul's, presided at the service, and Robert Runcie, Archbishop of Canterbury, conducted the marriage. Notable figures in attendance included many members of other royal families, republican heads of state, and members of the bride's and groom's families. After the ceremony, the couple made the traditional appearance on the balcony of Buckingham Palace. The United Kingdom had a national holiday on that day to mark the wedding.[2] The ceremony featured many ceremonial aspects, including use of the state carriages and roles for the Foot Guards and Household Cavalry. Their marriage was widely billed as a "fairytale wedding" and the "wedding of the century". It was watched by an estimated global television audience of 750 million people.[2][3] Events were held around the Commonwealth to mark the wedding. Many street parties were held throughout the United Kingdom to celebrate the occasion. The couple separated in 1992 and divorced in 1996 after fifteen years of marriag Coronation of Charles III and Camilla Article Talk Read Edit View history Tools Coronation of Charles III and Camilla HM King Charles III HM The Queen Consort (cropped-v1).jpg Charles and Camilla in 2019 Date 6 May 2023; 11:00 (BST) Venue Westminster Abbey Location London, United Kingdom Participants King Charles III Queen Camilla Great Officers of State Archbishops and bishops assistant of the Church of England Garter Principal King of Arms Peers of the Realm Website coronation.gov.uk Edit this at Wikidata The coronation of Charles III and his wife, Camilla, as king and queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms is scheduled to take place on Saturday, 6 May 2023, at Westminster Abbey. Charles acceded to the throne on 8 September 2022, upon the death of his mother, Elizabeth II. Compared with previous coronations, the ceremony will undergo some alterations to represent multiple faiths, cultures, and communities across the United Kingdom, and will be shorter than his mother's coronation in 1953. The ceremony will begin with the anointing of Charles, symbolising his spiritual entry into kingship, and then his crowning and enthronement, representing his assumption of temporal powers and responsibilities. Camilla will be crowned in a shorter and simpler ceremony. The royal family will travel to Buckingham Palace afterward, in a state procession, and appear on the balcony to celebrate the occasion. In addition to the coronation ceremony, the event will be marked by public ceremonies and celebrations in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the British Crown Dependencies and overseas territories. On 7 May, the Coronation Big Lunch will take place in the United Kingdom, providing the public with the opportunity to mark the occasion with street parties. The Coronation Concert will be held on the same day at Windsor Castle with representatives of the King and Queen Consort’s charities as well as members of the general public in attendance. The Big Help Out initiative will take place on 8 May, to encourage community service and volunteering. Both the coronation at Westminster Abbey and the concert at Windsor Castle will be broadcast on television and streamed online. This will be the first coronation of a British monarch in the 21st century and the 40th to be held at Westminster Abbey since 1066.[1][a] Preparation Background Charles III became king immediately upon the death of his mother, Elizabeth II, at 15:10 BST on Thursday 8 September 2022. He was proclaimed king by the Accession Council of the United Kingdom on Saturday 10 September,[3] which was followed by proclamations in other Commonwealth realms.[4] Due to Elizabeth's advanced age, Charles's coronation has been planned for years, under the code name Operation Golden Orb.[5][6][7] During Elizabeth's reign, planning meetings for Operation Golden Orb were held at least once a year, attended by representatives of the government, the Church of England and Clarence House staff.[5] Planning The Duke of Norfolk, Edward Fitzalan-Howard, is in charge of organising the coronation as hereditary Earl Marshal.[8] A committee of privy counsellors will arrange the event.[9][7] In October 2022, the date of Charles and Camilla's coronation was announced: Saturday 6 May 2023 at Westminster Abbey.[10] Buckingham Palace set the date to ensure sufficient time to mourn the death of Queen Elizabeth II before holding a joyous ceremony.[9][7] In November 2022, the government proclaimed that an extra bank holiday would occur on 8 May, two days after the coronation.[11] On 20 January 2023, Buckingham Palace announced plans for the coronation weekend between 6 and 8 May.[12] As a state occasion, the coronation is paid for by the British government. The government thus also decides the guest list,[13] which will include members of the British royal family, the British prime minister, representatives of the houses of Parliament, representatives of the governments of the Commonwealth realms and foreign royalty and heads of state.[14] Safety regulations at Westminster Abbey will restrict the number of guests to around 2,000.[15] After the ceremony, Charles and Camilla are expected to appear on the Buckingham Palace balcony.[7] For the first time, a Coronation Claims Office has been established within the Cabinet Office instead of the traditional Court of Claims to handle claims to perform a historic or ceremonial role at the coronation.[16] The official photographer of the coronation will be Hugo Burnand. He had previously been the official photographer for Charles and Camilla's wedding in 2005.[17] Invitation to the Coronation of King Charles III and Queen Camilla On 5 April 2023, the official invitation from King Charles III and Queen Camilla was unveiled and sent to about 2,000 guests.[18] A new official photo of the royal couple by Hugo Burnand was also released.[18] The invitation for the coronation was designed by Andrew Jamieson, a heraldic artist and manuscript illuminator, and features the couple's coats of arms and a motif of the Green Man against a background of the emblematic flowers of the UK and a British wildflower meadow and wildlife.[18][19] The official commemorative range to mark the coronation was released by Royal Collection Shop on 14 April 2023. The collection is crafted from English bone china and finished in 22 carat gold.[20] On the evening and early morning of 17 and 18 April, initial dress rehearsals began taking place in London for the military processions.[21] The RAF was also seen rehearsing for the flypast on 19 April.[22] In preparation for the coronation, Westminster Abbey was closed to tourists and worshippers from 25 April until 8 May.[23] Emblems Coronation emblem in the United Kingdom Coronation emblem in Canada The Coronation Emblem was designed by Sir Jony Ive with his creative collective LoveFrom and depicts the flora of the four nations of the United Kingdom in the shape of St Edward's Crown.[24] The flora shown in the emblem are the rose for England, the thistle for Scotland, the daffodil for Wales and the shamrock for Northern Ireland.[25] The primary emblem is in blue and red, the colours of the Union Jack. Secondary emblems were also made available in red, blue, black and white.[25] All versions were also made available in Welsh.[26] The Palace also announced that the rules governing the commercial use of Royal Photographs and Official Insignia would be temporarily relaxed with the King and the Queen Consort's approval in this case to allow souvenir manufacturing.[27] A Canadian emblem for the coronation was created by Cathy Bursey-Sabourin, the Fraser Herald of Arms, and registered with the Canadian Heraldic Authority. The emblem includes Charles III's royal cypher inside a ring of 13 triangular shapes, alluding to a string of pennants and Canada's provinces and territories. The circular arrangement symbolises inclusion, as well as the Indigenous Canadian concept of equity and the cycles of the natural world. The colour green is a nod to the King's commitment to the environment, while the white space may be viewed as a sunburst, symbolising innovation and new ideas.[28] Coronation Procession The Gold State Coach of 1762 on display at the Royal Mews. It is expected to be used in the Coronation Procession from Westminster Abbey to Buckingham Palace. On the day of the coronation, the King and the Queen Consort will travel to Westminster Abbey in the Diamond Jubilee Coach drawn by six Windsor Greys as part of a procession known as "The King's Procession".[29][30] The Sovereign's Escort of the Household Cavalry Mounted Regiment and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police will take part in the procession, which will go along The Mall, down Whitehall and along Parliament Street, and around the east and south sides of Parliament Square.[29][31] The King and the Queen Consort, in the Gold State Coach drawn by eight Windsor Greys, and the royal family will take the same route in reverse and return to Buckingham Palace in a larger ceremonial procession, known as "The Coronation Procession".[29] They will be joined by armed forces and police services from across the Commonwealth and the British Overseas Territories, alongside the Sovereign's Bodyguard and Royal Watermen.[29][32] The Princess Royal and the Commander of the Household Cavalry will serve as Gold Stick-in-Waiting and Silver Stick-in-Waiting, respectively.[33] Over 5,000 members of the British Armed Forces and 400 Armed Forces personnel from at least 35 other Commonwealth countries will be part of the two processions, and 1,000 more will be lining the route.[34] The Royal British Legion will form a Guard of Honour of 100 Standard Bearers in Parliament Square.[34] Upon returning to the palace, the King and the Queen Consort will then receive a royal salute from the armed forces and join the other working members of the royal family on the balcony of Buckingham Palace to review a six-minute flypast of more than 60 aircraft.[29][30][34] A grandstand was built in front of Buckingham Palace with 3,800 seats offered to Armed Forces veterans, NHS and social care workers, and representatives of charities with links to the King and the Queen Consort who will be watching the procession and the flypast.[35] 354 uniformed cadet forces have been given the opportunity to watch the procession at Admiralty Arch.[35] Ceremony The leading object for the procession within the abbey will be the newly made Cross of Wales, which includes relics of the True Cross gifted to the King by Pope Francis.[36] Two maces, made between 1660 and 1695, and the Sword of State will be carried into the abbey before the King.[37] Also carried into the abbey will be the Sword of Spiritual Justice, the Sword of Temporal Justice, the blunt Sword of Mercy, and St Edward's Staff.[37] Faith leaders and faith representatives will form the first procession inside the abbey.[38] They will be followed by representatives from the Commonwealth realms, whose flags will be carried by national representatives accompanied by the governors general and prime ministers.[38] The King and Queen will be accompanied in their procession by the Marquess of Anglesey, the Duke of Westminster, the Earl of Caledon and the Earl of Dundee, who will carry the Standards of the Quarterings of the Royal Arms and Standard of the Principality of Wales.[38] Also taking part in the procession will be Admiral Sir Tony Radakin and the Duke of Norfolk.[38] The Coronation Chair will be used by Charles during the ceremony, when it will house the Stone of Scone (not in picture) The service will begin at 11:00 am and will be conducted by the archbishop of Canterbury.[12] Charles will sit in King Edward's Chair, the name of which refers to either Edward the Confessor or Edward I of England, who had it built in 1300 to house the Stone of Scone that the English took from the Scots in 1296.[39][40][41] The 13th-century chair has undergone a programme of restoration and conservation in preparation for the ceremony.[42] Historic Environment Scotland announced in September 2022 that the Stone of Scone would be moved from the Crown Room of Edinburgh Castle to London for Charles's coronation at Westminster Abbey and returned to the Castle after the ceremony.[43] The holy anointing oil was based on the same formula as had been used in the coronation of Elizabeth II and was consecrated by Patriarch Theophilos III of Jerusalem at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre on 6 March 2023 under the supervision of Hosam Naoum, the Anglican Archbishop in Jerusalem.[44][45][46] It will be contained within the Ampulla and the archbishop will use the Spoon to perform the anointing.[37] As per the coronation of Elizabeth II, it has been confirmed by Buckingham Palace that the moment of anointing will not be directly shown on television.[47] St Edward's Crown, the Orb, the Sovereign's Sceptre with Cross, the Sovereign's Sceptre with Dove, and the Sovereign's Ring The King will be presented with the Spurs, invested with the Armills (bracelets), the Sovereign's Orb, the Sovereign's Ring, the Sovereign's Sceptre with Cross and the Sovereign's Sceptre with Dove.[37] St Edward's Crown, which was removed in December 2022 from the Tower of London for resizing,[48] is to be used to crown the King.[13][7] A crown referred to as St Edward's Crown (the crown of England) is first recorded as having been used for the coronation of Henry III of England in 1220, and that crown may have been the same crown worn by Saint Edward the Confessor. However, it was destroyed by the Republican Oliver Cromwell, and the current St Edward's Crown was made as a replacement in 1661.[49][50] At the moment of the King's crowning, 21-gun salutes will be fired at 13 locations and on deployed Royal Navy ships along with 62-gun salutes and a six-gun salvo at the Tower of London and Horse Guards Parade.[34] The King will also wear the Imperial State Crown at the end of the ceremony.[51] The Queen Consort will be anointed and then invested with the Queen Consort's Ring, and handed the Queen Consort's Sceptre with Cross, and the Queen Consort's Rod with Dove.[37] Queen Mary's Crown was removed from display at the Tower of London for modification work and will be used to crown Queen Camilla.[52][b] The crown will be reset with the Cullinan III, IV and V diamonds and four of its detachable arches will be removed.[52] It will be the first time a queen is crowned using another consort's crown since 1727, when Caroline of Ansbach used the Crown of Mary of Modena.[52] The decision not to use the Crown of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother avoids a potential diplomatic dispute with Pakistan, Afghanistan and India, which have all made claims of ownership of the Koh-i-Noor diamond in the past.[55] This will be the first coronation of a consort since that of Queen Elizabeth (later known as the Queen Mother) in 1937.[7] The Imperial State Crown will be worn by King Charles III after the service on the procession to Buckingham Palace and at the balcony appearance Queen Mary's Crown (here depicted in its original form) will be used to crown Queen Camilla Charles will be attended by four pages of honour. They are Prince George of Wales, Lord Oliver Cholmondeley (son of the Marquess and Marchioness of Cholmondeley), Nicholas Barclay (grandson of Sarah Troughton), and Ralph Tollemache (son of the Hon. Edward Tollemache). Camilla will also be attended by four pages of honour. They are her grandsons, Gus and Louis Lopes (sons of Laura Lopes) and Frederick Parker Bowles (son of Tom Parker Bowles), and her great-nephew, Arthur Elliot (son of Ben Elliot).[56] Camilla will also be accompanied by two "ladies in attendance": her sister, Annabel Elliot, and the Marchioness of Lansdowne.[57] It has been reported that unlike previous coronations, only King Charles's son and heir apparent, Prince William, will pay his personal homage and allegiance to the monarch, while other royal peers will not be asked to do the same.[58] Music The King personally oversaw the development of the music programme and commissioned twelve new pieces for the service.[59] Andrew Nethsingha, the organist and master of the choristers at the abbey, was appointed as the director of music for the coronation.[60] Six of the new commissions will be performed by the orchestra before the service and include "Brighter Visions Shine Afar" by Judith Weir, "Sacred Fire" by Sarah Class (which will be performed by Pretty Yende), "Be Thou my Vision - Triptych for Orchestra" by Nigel Hess, Roderick Williams, and Shirley J. Thompson, "Voices of the World" by Iain Farrington, and "King Charles III Coronation March" by Patrick Doyle.[61] "Tros y Garreg" by Sir Karl Jenkins will be part of the programme,[61] while tradition requires that the works of William Byrd, George Frideric Handel, Sir Edward Elgar, Sir Henry Walford Davies, Sir William Walton, Sir Hubert Parry, and Ralph Vaughan Williams be included as well.[60] In tribute to the King's 64-year tenure as Prince of Wales, a liturgical section of the ceremony will be performed in Welsh in the form of Paul Mealor's "Coronation Kyrie" which will be sung by Sir Bryn Terfel.[61] Debbie Wiseman created the two-part composition "Alleluia (O Clap your Hands)" and "Alleluia (O Sing Praises)", while Andrew Lloyd Webber composed a new coronation anthem, "Make a Joyful Noise", based on Psalm 98.[61] Other new compositions include "Coronation Sanctus" by Roxanna Panufnik and "Agnus Dei" by Tarik O'Regan.[61] Greek Orthodox music will also be included in the service in tribute to the King's ancestry and his late father, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.[59] The choir for the coronation will be a combination of the choirs of Westminster Abbey, the Chapel Royal, Methodist College Belfast, and Truro Cathedral.[60][61] The Ascension Choir, a gospel choir, will also perform during the service.[60] The orchestra players will be drawn from Charles's patronages, including the Philharmonia Orchestra, Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, BBC National Orchestra of Wales, Regina Symphony Orchestra, English Chamber Orchestra, Scottish Chamber Orchestra, Royal Opera House Orchestra, and Welsh National Opera Orchestra.[60][61] The orchestra will be conducted by Sir Antonio Pappano and led by Vasko Vassilev.[61] Sir John Eliot Gardiner will conduct a programme of choral music consisting of the Monteverdi Choir and English Baroque Soloists before the service.[59][60] The State Trumpeters of the Household Cavalry and the Fanfare Trumpeters of the Royal Air Force will play the fanfares.[60] The Official Album of the Coronation will feature all the music and spoken word from the epic event, including Lord Lloyd Webber’s Coronation Anthem titled Make A Joyful Noise. Available digitally on the day, the complete album will be over four hours long. A physical version of the record will then be released globally from May 15, with a special Deluxe Collectors CD and vinyl to follow from Decca Records. Included on The Official Coronation album will be 12 newly composed pieces of music by artists from across the UK and Commonwealth. These commissions will be made up of six orchestral, five choral and one organ piece.[62] [63] Guests Main article: List of guests at the coronation of Charles III and Camilla There were approximately 2,000 guests invited to the coronation. Invitees include members of the royal family, representatives from the Church of England, prominent politicians from the UK and the Commonwealth, and foreign heads of state and royalty.[64] As with prior coronations, many attendees will be seated in the side chapels of Westminster Abbey, rather than the principal nave.[65] The number of political attendees has been reduced significantly. In 1953, 800 MPs and over 900 peers were invited (virtually the entire Parliament of the United Kingdom), whereas the decision not to build scaffolding has significantly reduced capacity in the Abbey compared with previous ceremonies.[66] Buckingham Palace considered inviting as few as 20 MPs and 20 peers,[67] but an outcry from MPs and peers prompted those numbers to more than double, withe the Cabinet Office making final decisions on who is invited.[68] Cabinet ministers' spouses were not invited, angering some ministers.[69] On the government's advice, the King forbade the wearing of coronets, coronation robes and court uniform by those peers who have been invited (except those performing specific ceremonial roles); they may wear business suits or parliamentary ermine robes (worn for State Openings of Parliament) instead.[70][65] Invitations were extended to 850 community and charity representatives, including 450 British Empire Medal recipients and 400 young people; half of whom were nominated by the British government.[71] Public celebrations In April 2023, Buckingham Palace revealed a new emoji depicting St Edward's Crown for use on social media.[72] United Kingdom A Union Jack defaced with the coronation emblem at High Street at Bexley, London A postbox topper to mark the coronation in Goddington, London On 7 May, the Big Lunch team at the Eden Project is organizing the "Coronation Big Lunch", an event that will encourage people throughout the UK to host Big Lunches and street parties.[12] Coronation quiche was chosen by Charles and Camilla as the official dish of the Coronation Big Lunch.[73] The "Coronation Concert" will be held on the same day at Windsor Castle's East Lawn.[12][30] In addition to performances by singers, musicians, and stage and screen actors, the show will also feature "The Coronation Choir" composed of community choirs and amateur singers such as Refugee choirs, NHS choirs, LGBTQ+ singing groups, and deaf signing choirs.[12][30] The BBC will produce, stage, and broadcast the event. A national ballot was held between 10 and 28 February to distribute 5,000 pairs of free tickets for the public based on the geographical spread of the UK population.[12][74] Volunteers from the King and the Queen Consort's charities will also be among the audience.[12] The Coronation Concert will also feature performances from artists including Lionel Richie, Katy Perry, Andrea Bocelli, Sir Bryn Terfel, Freya Ridings, and Take That.[75] A number of musical performers – including Sir Elton John, Adele, Harry Styles, Robbie Williams, and the Spice Girls – reportedly turned down the palace's invitation to perform, citing scheduling conflicts.[76] A public holiday was declared on 8 May to commemorate the coronation.[77] On the same day, the Together Coalition, in partnership with The Scout Association, the Royal Voluntary Service, and various faith groups, is organising the Big Help Out initiative to encourage volunteering and community service.[12][30] The Royal Voluntary Service, of which Camilla is president, launched the Coronation Champions Awards which will recognise a diverse group of 500 volunteers nominated by members of the public.[78][79] The pubs will also remain open for an extra two hours until 1 am on the coronation weekend.[80] The Royal Mint released a new collection of coins, which includes a 50p and £5 coin and depicts the King wearing the Tudor Crown.[81] The British brewing company Greene King has produced a 2023 Coronation Ale special brew to commemorate the occasion. In addition, in May, the company will auction several unopened crates of a special brew created for the cancelled coronation of Edward VIII in 1937. All proceeds from the auction will be donated to The Prince's Trust.[82] Royal Mail issues four stamps to mark the King's coronation. Stamps embrace causes close to king’s heart, with designs depicting Britain’s cultural diversity, Commonwealth and sustainability. Presented in a miniature sheet, it is only the third occasion in history that Royal Mail has issued coronation stamps, the previous two being for George VI and Queen Elizabeth II. Royal Mail will also be applying a special postmark from 28 April to 10 May, to mark the event, which reads: Coronation of Their Majesties King Charles III and Queen Camilla 6 May 2023. [83] Crown Dependencies A public holiday was declared in all three Crown Dependencies.[84][85][86] As in the UK, Big Help Outs will also be organised in the Crown Dependencies on the day of the holiday.[30][87][88] The states of Guernsey has planned four days of events to celebrate the coronation, from 5 to 8 May. A vigil will be held on 5 May at Forest Methodist Church to reflect on the coronation's spiritual element. On 6 May, bells will ring from Town Church, Vale, Forest, and St Pierre du Bois on Coronation Day, 6 May. A live broadcast of the coronation service will be played on a large screen at the KGV, followed by a military parade from Fort George to the Model Yacht Pond. A 21-gun salute will be fired at noon from Castle Cornet as part of the national salute. A Coronation Big Lunch will be held at Saint Peter Port seafront on 7 May, along with a service of Thanksgiving at the Town Church. On the evening of 7 May, the Coronation Concert will be screened live at the KGV, and several buildings including Castle Cornet and Fort Grey will be illuminated in red, white, and blue in the evening.[89] Jersey has planned several events over three days to celebrate the coronation. On 6 May, Coronation Park will host an event that includes a large-screen broadcast of the coronation, musical entertainment, and activities. Licensed establishments are encouraged to open ahead of the ceremony's broadcast, and seventh category licensed establishments may apply for special extensions to stay open until 3 am on 7 May. On 7 May, the Coronation Big Lunch will take place in Liberation Square, and a public screening of the coronation concert will be held there.[87][90] The Isle of Man government has organised three days of festivities from 6 to 8 May to celebrate the coronation of Charles III, Lord of Mann. A Coronation Event Fund was established to assist local authorities, community groups, and charities help finance celebrations. Commemorative events planned on the Isle of Mann include the Biosphere Bee Community Picnic on 7 May. The Legislative Buildings in Douglas will also be lit up on 7 May, as a part of the British 'Lighting up the Nation' initiative.[88][91] A collection of 12 Isle of Man stamps featuring photos of Charles and Camilla, portraits of the King, and the royal cypher were also released in April 2023.[92] British Overseas Territories A public holiday was declared on 8 May in Bermuda and the Cayman Islands.[77] Several events are planned in Bermuda for the coronation weekend. On 6 May, a commemorative tree planting will take place, and a Coronation Garden will be officially opened at the Botanical Gardens. The garden has been designed to reflect Charles's work in support of the environment and sustainable farming. On 7 May, a service of Thanksgiving will be held at the Cathedral of the Most Holy Trinity.[93] On 8 May, the Children's Reading Festival will take place to recognise the Camilla's commitment to literacy, particularly for young people.[94] Canada A national ceremony to mark the coronation and to celebrate Charles III's reign as King of Canada will be televised on 6 May.[95][96] The event will take place at Sir John A. Macdonald Building in Ottawa and will feature speeches by Algonquin spiritual leader Albert Dumont and aerospace engineer Farah Alibay. Performers at the ceremony include Eagle River Singers, Sabrina Benaim, Florence K, Inn Echo, and the Ottawa Regional Youth Choir.[96] During the event, Dominic Laporte will spray-paint piece thematically linked to flowers, as an homage to Charles' support for the environment.[97] There are also plans to unveil several items related to Charles at the event, including the first Canadian stamp with an image of the King by Canada Post, as well as updated emblems created by the Canadian Heraldic Authority to represent the change in reign.[96] On the same day as the national ceremony, a 21-gun salute will be carried, and a performance by the Central Band of the Canadian Armed Forces will take place at Parliament Hill.[96] Several Royal Canadian Legion branches will host a reception to mark the coronation on 6 May.[98][99] A national initiative to illuminate landmarks in emerald green is planned across Canada on 6 and 7 May. Additionally, on these same dates, guided tours will be offered at Rideau Hall, the official residence of the monarch and governor general of Canada.[100] The Central Band of the Canadian Armed Forces will also perform at Rideau Hall during the coronation weekend.[96] The Department of Canadian Heritage has provided C$257,000 to the Royal Canadian Geographical Society to produce educational material on the King's links with Indigenous peoples in Canada and his tours of the country.[96] These materials will be made available for use in Canadian schools. During the coronation weekend, the Society will also distribute a special edition of Canadian Geographic about the King at events in Ottawa.[101] Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada has also approved the use of a special call sign in Canada for amateur radio operators to use from 5 May to 2 June to the mark the occasion.[102] As a part of the coronation celebration, the official Canadian portrait of Charles III will be unveiled on 31 May.[100][103] Monarchists again chided the federal Cabinet for not coordinating the production of a coronation medal,[104][failed verification] thereby ending a tradition in place in Canada since at least the coronation of Edward VII in 1902. Provincial celebrations Events have been planned by the offices of provincial lieutenant governors and several provincial governments. Flag-raising ceremonies for the coronation flag will also take place at several provincial Government Houses and legislative buildings on 6 May.[103][105][106][107] Lieutenant governors and territorial commissioners have also organised events that include exhibitions, military parades, and tree plantings to commemorate the occasion.[100][96] Lieutenant governors of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, and Saskatchewan will host events at their respective Government Houses on 6 May.[103][105][108][109][110] Additional events to mark the coronation are also planned at Government House, Nova Scotia on 2 May and 22 June, and at Government House, Saskatchewan on 7 and 13 May. The event on 13 May will feature a debut musical performance by Jeffery Straker, who has composed a new song for the coronation.[110] Lieutenant governors will also partake in other events, with the Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia also attending private events to mark the occasion.[103] The Lieutenant Governor of Ontario will mark the coronation by hosting a virtual panel with the Empire Club of Canada on 5 May, and opening the Lieutenant Governor's Suite at the Ontario Legislative Building to the public as a part of Doors Open Toronto on 27 and 28 May.[106] The Lieutenant Governor of Alberta will also host an event to mark the coronation on 13 May, at the University of Alberta Botanic Garden.[111] Other public celebrations hosted by provincial governments include an event on 5 May on the grounds of the Saskatchewan Legislative Building, and a fair at Queen's Park on 6 May, hosted by the Government of Ontario.[112][106] On the same day, the Government of Ontario will also offer free admission to provincially-owned attractions and 39 provincial parks.[113] Several coronation concerts have also been organised during the coronation weekend. The Office of the Lieutenant Governor of Ontario has initiated a six-part coronation concert series for long-term care homes from April to May.[106] The Knox-Metropolitan United Church in Regina, Saskatchewan, will host concerts throughout the coronation weekend, while the Cathedral Church of St. James Church in Toronto will host a concert on 6 May.[112][106] Australia To commemorate Charles III's coronation as King of Australia, buildings and monuments across the country will be illuminated in royal purple on both 6 and 7 May. On 7 May, the Australian Defence Force will fire a 21-gun salute from the forecourt of Parliament House, followed by a flypast by the Royal Australian Air Force over Canberra.[114] To mark the coronation, a flag notice will be issued to encourage the flying of the Australian National Flag, Australian Aboriginal Flag and the Torres Strait Islander Flag on 6 and 7 May 2023.[115] The Australian Government has also announced its plans to donate to an undisclosed environmental charity based in Australia on the King's behalf, as a "gift" to the monarch during his coronation.[116] Government Houses in Australia will be open for the public to commemorate the event. On 6 May, Government House, Brisbane and Government House, Melbourne will host an open house, while Government House, Darwin will host a performance by the band of the 1st Brigade.[117][118][119] Government House, Sydney will host a garden reception and tree planting on 6 May and an open house on 7 May, while Government House, Adelaide will host an open house on 21 May.[120][121] Government House, Perth, has also announced plans to celebrate the coronation from 2 May to 8 May.[122] In addition to an open house, Government House, Melbourne will also host a coronation reception after the date of the coronation.[118] The Australian Monarchist League (AML) will host several low key events and screenings of the coronation on 5 and 6 May, including in Adelaide, Melbourne, Perth, and Sydney.[123][124] The AML opted to not to organize street parties over concerns that they may be disrupted by republican protesters.[123] New Zealand A national event featuring performances will be held at the Auckland Domain on 7 May to celebrate the coronation of Charles III as King of New Zealand, while the New Zealand Defence Force will perform a gun salute at Devonport and Point Jerningham in Wellington on the same day.[125][126] Several other public services and private groups have also organized commemorative events. The New Zealand Academy of Fine Arts will hold a special exhibition to mark the coronation from 21 April to 21 May. The exhibition will feature works from 68 practising artists and pieces belonging to the Royal New Zealand Navy.[127] Libraries in South Taranaki will host coronation events from 1 to 6 May. The Wellington Cathedral of St Paul will also hold a coronation festival from 5 to 7 May.[126] Trees That Count and the Department of Conservation have planned a tree planting campaign to commemorate the occasion. The New Zealand Government provided NZ$1 million to Trees that Count as a gift to mark the coronation and support the planting of 100,000 trees by local councils during the coronation weekend.[125] The campaign was launched on 26 April by various parliamentarians, such as the Prime Minister Chris Hipkins and opposition leader Christopher Luxon, at a tree planting ceremony held on the grounds of Parliament House, Wellington.[128] The NZ Post will release commemorative coins and stamps on 3 May to mark the occasion.[129] An initiative to illuminate landmarks in purple will also take place in Auckland, Hawera, and Wellington on 6 May.[125][126] Coverage The BBC suspended the television licence fee for the coronation weekend, so venues may screen the coronation on 6 May, and the coronation concert the next day, without needing to buy a TV licence.[130] The Department for Culture, Media and Sport announced that the event will be shown on big screens across 57 locations in the UK, including in Hyde Park, Green Park and St James's Park.[35] In Australia, full coverage of the coronation will be provided by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. In Canada, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's television and radio arms will provide full coverage of the coronation and its own national ceremony.[131] France TV will broadcast the coronation in France on France 2 and TV5Monde.[132] The American Broadcasting Company will provide full coverage of the event in the United States.[131] Reactions Public opinion In April 2023, YouGov conducted multiple surveys in the UK related to the coronation. One survey carried out on 13 April revealed that 46 per cent of British adults were likely to watch the coronation. However, another survey conducted on the same day found that only 33 per cent of the respondents cared about the coronation of King Charles.[133] A subsequent YouGov survey conducted five days later found that 51 per cent of Britons believed that the coronation should not be financed by taxpayers.[134] Protests The British republican advocacy group, Republic, has planned protests during the coronation, with the group's chief executive, Graham Smith calling the coronation an antiquated "celebration of hereditary power and privilege".[135] The organisation anticipates the protest will be "the first time a big royal event has been directly covered by a larger protest", with around 1,200 individuals having pledged to attend their upcoming protest at Trafalgar Square. The protest is planned to occur near the statue of Charles I, with smaller groups of one to three people spread throughout the procession route.[136] Republic has encouraged participants to wear yellow during the protest.[136][137] Pro-Scottish independence and republican marches are scheduled to take place in both Edinburgh and Glasgow on the day of the coronation. Scottish advocacy groups participating in the marches include All Under One Banner in Glasgow, and the Radical Independence Campaign and Our Republic in Edinburgh. The latter group also plans to promote the Declaration of Calton Hill during its march.[138] The Welsh republican advocacy group, Cymru Republic, has also announced plans to stage a protest on 6 May in Cardiff, with a march planned from the statue of Aneurin Bevan to Bute Park.[139] Removal of the Stone of Scone In October 2022, an online petition was signed by hundreds of individuals, calling for the Stone of Scone to remain in Edinburgh Castle for the coronation ceremony.[140] Alex Salmond, the leader of the Alba Party and a former first minister of Scotland, suggested in March 2023 that the Scottish Government ought to prevent the stone from being taken to London, despite Historic Environment Scotland having already announced the move.[141] Notes King Harold Godwinson was almost certainly crowned at the newly consecrated Westminster Abbey in January 1066; although, this is not specifically confirmed by any contemporary source.[2] If Harold's coronation is included, this will be the 41st at the abbey. When Charles married her in 2005, it was announced by Clarence House that it was not intended that Camilla would assume the title of queen upon his accession.[53] Charles, however, had long wished for her to be so titled and crowned alongside him and, in February 2022, with Camilla's popularity rising, Elizabeth II declared her "sincere wish" that Camilla be known as queen consort upon Charles's accession.[54] See also Canadian Coronation Contingent Coronation of the British monarch Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom List of British coronations List of people involved in coronations of the British monarch References "A history of coronations". www.westminster-abbey.org. Dean and Chapter of Westminster. 2023. Retrieved 19 March 2023. Gosling, Lucinda (2013). Royal Coronations. Oxford: Shire. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-74781-220-3. Rhoden-Paul, Andre; Heald, Claire (10 September 2022). "Charles praises Queen's reign as he is formally confirmed as king". BBC. Retrieved 11 September 2022. Ratcliffe, Rebecca; McClure, Tess; Badshash, Nadeem; Taylor, Harry; Zeldin-O'Neill, Sophie (11 September 2022). "Proclamations read out in Commonwealth countries – as it happened". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 September 2022. Pepinster, Catherine (2022). "Chapter 9: Vivat! Vivat! Vivat Rex! the next coronation". Defenders of the Faith: Queen Elizabeth II's funeral will see Christianity take centre stage. London: Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 978-1399800068. Mahler, Kevin (14 February 2022). "Ghosts? Here's the true tale of things that go bump in the night". The Times. Retrieved 9 September 2022. the codename for the coronation planning: 'Operation Golden Orb' Dixon, Hayley; Narwan, Gurpreet (13 September 2022). "Coronation for the cost of living crisis as King expresses wish for 'good value'". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 30 September 2022. Davies, Caroline (10 September 2022). "Earl marshal: the duke coordinating the Queen's funeral and King's coronation". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 October 2022. Donaldson, Kitty (5 October 2022). "King Charles III Set to Be Crowned on June 3 Next Year in London". Bloomberg. Retrieved 11 October 2022. Coughlan, Sean (11 October 2022). "Coronation on 6 May for King Charles and Camilla, Queen Consort". BBC News. Retrieved 11 October 2022. "Bank holiday proclaimed in honour of the coronation of His Majesty King Charles III". gov.uk. 6 November 2022. Retrieved 6 November 2022. "Coronation Weekend plans announced". The Royal Family (Press release). 21 January 2023. Retrieved 21 January 2023. "King Charles III, the new monarch". BBC. 10 September 2022. Retrieved 11 September 2022. "King Charles III's coronation: What we know so far". BBC News. 8 November 2022. Porterfield, Carlie (11 October 2022). "Charles III Announces May Coronation Date—Here's What To Expect". www.forbes.com. Retrieved 24 February 2023. "Coronation Claims Office to Look at Historic and Ceremonial Roles for King Charles III's Coronation". gov.uk (Press release). Retrieved 14 January 2023. co*ke, Hope (21 April 2021). "Former Tatler photographer Hugo Burnand crowned as King Charles III's coronation photographer". Tatler. Archived from the original on 7 March 2023. Retrieved 31 March 2023. "Coronation invites issued by King Charles and 'Queen Camilla'". BBC News. 5 April 2023. Retrieved 5 April 2023. "The Coronation Invitation". The Royal Family. 4 April 2023. Retrieved 8 April 2023. "The Offcial Coronation Collection". Royal Collection Shop. 14 April 2023. Retrieved 14 April 2023. "Rehearsal". Sky News. Retrieved 18 April 2023. "RAF Rehearsal 19th April". UK Defence Journal. Retrieved 19 April 2023. Manning, Charlotte (8 March 2023). "Westminster Abbey to close to public next month in preparation for King's Coronation". metro.co.uk. Associated Newspapers Limited. Retrieved 26 April 2023. "The Coronation Emblem". The Royal Family. Retrieved 11 February 2023. "Emblem usage guidlines" (PDF). The Royal Family. Retrieved 12 February 2023. "Welsh assets" (PDF). The Royal Family. Retrieved 12 February 2023. "Guidelines for the production of souvenirs to mark the coronation of King Charles III and the Queen Consort" (PDF). The Royal Family. Retrieved 12 February 2023. "The Canadian Coronation Emblem". Government of Canada. Retrieved 5 April 2023. "The Coronation Procession". The Royal Family. 9 April 2023. Retrieved 9 April 2023. Coughlan, Sean (21 January 2023). "King Charles's coronation plans include Windsor concert". BBC News. Retrieved 21 January 2023. Woolf, Marie (13 March 2023). "Mounties to feature in King's slimmed-down coronation procession". www.theglobeandmail.com. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 24 April 2023. Woolf, Marie (13 March 2023), "Mounties to feature in King's slimmed-down coronation procession", The Globe and Mail, retrieved 13 April 2023 Myers, Russell (26 April 2023). "Princess Anne gets starring role in King Charles' Coronation as thanks for her loyalty". Mirror. Retrieved 26 April 2023. "Armed Forces personnel to feature in Coronation". gov.uk. 16 April 2023. Retrieved 16 April 2023. William, Helen (15 April 2023). "Veterans and NHS workers to watch coronation from in front of Buckingham Palace". The Independent. Retrieved 16 April 2023. Coughlan, Sean (19 April 2023). "Coronation cross will include 'crucifixion relics'". BBC News. Retrieved 19 April 2023. "The Coronation Regalia". The Royal Family. 9 April 2023. Retrieved 9 April 2023. "Roles to be performed at the Coronation Service at Westminster Abbey". Royal.uk. 27 April 2023. Retrieved 27 April 2023. "King Charles's coronation will be an occasion for 'celebration and pageantry' - find out all the details". Sky News. Retrieved 23 January 2023. "The Coronation Chair". Westminster Abbey. Retrieved 23 January 2023. Lambdin, Laura C.; Lambdin, Robert T. (3 April 2013). Encyclopedia of Medieval Literature. Routledge. p. 512. ISBN 978-1-136-59425-0. Holden, Michael (1 March 2023). "Britain's coronation throne gets revamp ahead of King Charles' crowning". Reuters. Retrieved 1 March 2023. "Stone of Destiny to return to Westminster Abbey for coronation". BBC. 12 September 2022. Retrieved 13 September 2022. Badshah, Nadeem (3 March 2023). "King Charles coronation oil is consecrated in Jerusalem". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 March 2023. Holden, Michael (3 March 2023). "Holy oil for King Charles' coronation consecrated in Jerusalem". www.reuters.com. Reuters. Retrieved 4 March 2023. "Holy oil to anoint King Charles III on his coronation, has been consecrated in Jerusalem". CNN. 4 March 2023. Retrieved 5 March 2023. "King Charles bans TV cameras from 'most sacred' part of Coronation in last minute change". The Mirror. 12 April 2023. Retrieved 12 April 2023. "St Edward's Crown leaves Tower of London ahead of Coronation". BBC. 4 December 2022. Retrieved 4 December 2022. "How much is St Edward's Coronation Crown worth?". British Heritage. Retrieved 23 January 2023. Ronald Lightbown in Blair, vol. 1. pp. 257–353. "Historic crown to be modified for King Charles's coronation". Reuters. 3 December 2022. Retrieved 5 December 2022. "Queen Mary's Crown is removed from display at the Tower of London ahead of the Coronation". The Royal Family. 14 February 2023. Retrieved 14 February 2023. "Clarence House press release". Clarence House. 10 February 2005. Archived from the original on 24 June 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2018. Boffey, Daniel (8 September 2022). "Camilla to be crowned Queen beside King Charles III at his coronation". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 September 2022. Coughlan, Sean (14 February 2023). "Controversial diamond won't be used in coronation". www.bbc.co.uk. BBC. 20 February 2023 "A new photograph of The King and The Queen Consort". The Royal Family. 4 April 2023. Retrieved 5 April 2023. Ward, Victoria (21 April 2023). "Queen chooses sister and close friend to be her Coronation Ladies in Attendance". The Telegraph. Retrieved 21 April 2023. "Prince Harry book Spare: King Charles has had Harry omitted from his coronation". The New Zealand Herald. 7 January 2023. Retrieved 7 January 2023. Coughlan, Sean (18 February 2023). "Andrew Lloyd Webber piece among new coronation music". BBC News. Retrieved 19 February 2023. "Coronation Music at Westminster Abbey". The Royal Family. 18 February 2023. Retrieved 19 February 2023. "Buckingham Palace is pleased to announce further details of the twelve new compositions that have been written for the Coronation of Their Majesties The King and The Queen Consort at Westminster Abbey on Saturday 6th May 2023". The Royal Family. 16 April 2023. Retrieved 16 April 2023. "King Charles coronation to be recorded as an album". Reuters. 28 April 2023. Retrieved 28 April 2023. "Recording of coronation ceremony will be available to stream and download on the day". The Telegraph. 28 April 2023. Retrieved 28 April 2023. Syed, Armani (5 April 2023). "Everything to Know About King Charles III's Coronation". Time. Retrieved 13 April 2023. Diver, Tony (1 April 2023). "'No coronets' as peers told to dress down for Coronation by Buckingham Palace". The Telegraph. Robinson, Matthew (14 April 2023). "King Charles's Coronation guest list: a who's who of everyone expected to attend". The Telegraph. Retrieved 16 April 2023. Kidd, Patrick (14 March 2023). "The Times Diary: Voices Raised for Charles". The Times. Retrieved 16 April 2023. Robinson, Matthew (26 April 2023). "King Charles's Coronation guest list: a who's who of everyone expected to attend". The Telegram. Grylls, George (11 April 2023). "Cabinet ministers' spouses left off the Coronation guest list". The Times. Retrieved 16 April 2023. Rayner, Gordon; McTaggart, Ian (14 April 2023). "Coronation row over hundreds of peers forbidden from wearing robes". The Telegraph. Retrieved 16 April 2023. "Over 850 community and charity representatives invited to enjoy the Coronation service from Westminster Abbey". The Royal Family. 8 April 2023. Retrieved 16 April 2023. "St Edward's crown fashioned as emoji for agency coronation". Press Association. 9 April 2023. Retrieved 9 April 2023 – via The Guardian. "King Charles and Camilla choose coronation quiche as signature dish". The Guardian. 17 April 2023. Retrieved 17 April 2023. "King Charles's coronation concert offers 10,000 free tickets in ballot". BBC News. 9 February 2023. Retrieved 9 February 2023. Rackham, Annabel (14 April 2023). "Katy Perry and Lionel Richie to perform at Coronation concert". BBC News. Retrieved 14 April 2023. March 1, 2023 (1 March 2023). "Here Are All the People Who Said No to Performing at King Charles' Coronation". Time. Retrieved 11 March 2023. McHugh, Finn (11 April 2023). "Will we get a holiday? More details about King Charles' coronation revealed". www.sbs.com.au. SBS News. Retrieved 15 April 2023. "Coronation Champions Awards". Royal Voluntary Service. Retrieved 20 February 2023. Wylie, Catherine (25 April 2023). "Dame Judi Dench thanks 500 volunteers recognised in coronation celebrations". The Independent. Retrieved 25 April 2023. "Pubs allowed to stay open until 1 am on King Charles's coronation weekend". Sky News. 5 March 2023. Retrieved 5 March 2023. Weatherby, Bronwen (13 April 2023). "Coronation coins with first ever crowned effigy of King Charles III revealed by Royal Mint". The Independent. Retrieved 13 April 2023. Orie, Amarachi (19 April 2023). "Beer brewed 86 years ago for Edward VIII's canceled coronation goes on sale". www.cnn.com. Cable News Network. Retrieved 20 April 2023. "Royal Mail issues four stamps to mark King Charles III's coronation". The Guardian. 27 April 2023. Retrieved 28 April 2023. "Coronation of His Majesty King Charles III". The States of Guernsey. 6 April 2023. Retrieved 6 April 2023. "Draft Public Holidays And Bank Holidays (Amendment Coronation) (Jersey) Act 202" (PDF). Jersey State Assembly. Retrieved 10 April 2023. "Extra Isle of Man bank holiday for King Charles III coronation". BBC News. 10 November 2022. Retrieved 10 April 2023. Jeune, James (13 March 2023). "Jersey Coronation celebrations announced". Jersey Evening Post. Retrieved 9 April 2023. "Local initiatives". Isle of Man Government - Coronation. Retrieved 6 April 2023. "King Charles III coronation: Guernsey announces four-day celebration". ITV. 6 April 2023. Retrieved 6 April 2023. "Jersey islanders can see King's coronation on big screen". BBC News. 14 March 2023. Retrieved 9 April 2023. "Island to mark Coronation of The King and The Queen Consort". Isle of Man Government. 4 April 2023. Retrieved 6 April 2023. "Isle of Man commemorative stamps mark King Charles III's coronation". BBC. 8 April 2023. Retrieved 8 April 2023. "The Coronation of His Majesty King Charles III & Her Majesty the Queen Consort". Government of Bermuda. 1 March 2023. Retrieved 5 April 2023. Finighan, Gareth (2 March 2023). "May 8 declared a public holiday for King's coronation". The Royal Gazette. Retrieved 5 April 2023. "Prime Minister announces Canadian ceremony to mark the Coronation of His Majesty King Charles III". Office of the Prime Minister of Canada. 16 March 2023. Retrieved 16 March 2023. Ferreira, Jennifer (24 April 2023). "Here's how Canada plans to celebrate King Charles III's coronation". www.ctv.ca. Bell Media. Retrieved 24 April 2023. Woolf, Marie (24 April 2023). "King Charles's coronation to be marked with 21-gun salute and illumination of Peace Tower in emerald Green". www.theglobeandmail.com. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 27 April 2023. Weir, Brock (20 April 2023). "Newmarket, Aurora communities invited to MPP's Coronation party for King and Queen". www.pentictonherald.ca. Penticton Herald. Retrieved 20 April 2023. Edey, Noel (11 April 2023). "Legion holding celebration for King's coronation". cochranenow.com. Golden West Broadcasting. Retrieved 20 April 2023. "Celebrate His Majesty's Coronation". Government of Canada. 16 March 2023. Retrieved 16 March 2023. "Ottawa's $250,000 to celebrate King Charles's coronation with stories of his ties to Canada". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 22 April 2022. "Special Event Call Signs for the Coronation of King Charles III". www.rac.ca. Radio Amateurs of Canada. Retrieved 25 April 2023. "Nova Scotia Celebrates the Coronation". lt.gov.ns.ca. Province of Nova Scotia. 17 April 2023. Retrieved 17 April 2023. Chartrand, Philippe (26 April 2023), "Even if no longer defender of the faith, the Crown still defends Canadian values", Western Standard, New Media Corporation, retrieved 27 April 2023 "Public invited to viewing of coronation and flag-raising". www2.gnb.ca. Government of New Brunswick. 27 April 2023. Retrieved 27 April 2023. "The Coronation". www.lgontario.ca. King's Printer for Ontario. 2023. Retrieved 14 April 2023. "Coronation of His Majesty King Charles III". www.eia.gov.nt.ca. Government of the Northwest Territories. Retrieved 28 April 2023. "Invitation for the Coronation Celebration of King Charles III". www/lgpei.ca. Lieutenant Governor of PEI, Canada. Retrieved 28 April 2023. "Media Advisory: The Honourable Judy M. Foote, P.C., O.N.L., Lieutenant Governor of Newfoundland and Labrador, and His Honour Howard W. Foote, to mark The Coronation of His Majesty King Charles III and Queen Camilla". www.govhouse.nl.ca. Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. 27 April 2023. Retrieved 28 April 2023. "Celebrating the Coronation of His Majesty King Charles III". ltgov.sk.ca. Office of the Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan. 17 April 2023. Retrieved 17 April 2023. "King's Coronation Celebration". lieutenantgovernor.ab.ca. Lieutenant Governor of Alberta. 2023. Retrieved 22 April 2023. "The Coronation of King Charles III". ltgov.sk.ca. Office of the Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan. Retrieved 27 April 2023. "Ontario to mark King's coronation with party, free entry to tourist attractions". o.canada.com. Postmedia Network. Retrieved 28 April 2023. "Defence set to honour Coronation of the King and Queen Consort". Defence Ministers. 23 April 2023. https://www.pmc.gov.au/government/coronation/frequently-asked-questions McLeod, Catie (27 April 2023). "Anthony Albanese reveals plans for King Charles III's coronation including a surprise gift". news.com.au. News Corp Australia. Retrieved 27 April 2023. "Coronation Open Day - Saturday 6 May". The Governor of Queensland. Retrieved 14 April 2023. "Government House Victoria Coronation Day Open House Event". www.governor.vic.gov.au. State of Victoria, Australia. 24 April 2023. Retrieved 26 April 2023. "Coronation Celebrations". govhouse.nt.gov.au. Government House. 24 April 2023. Retrieved 25 April 2023. "CoronationWeekend@theHouse". www.governor.nsw.gov.au. Governor of New South Wales. 2023. Retrieved 26 April 2023. "Governor of South Australia". www.facebook.com. Meta. 20 April 2023. Retrieved 26 April 2023. "The Coronation of The King and Queen Consort". Government House Western Australia. Retrieved 22 April 2022. Salmon, James (22 April 2023). "What coronation? Australia's republicans squash celebrations down under". www.thetimes.co.uk. Times Media Limited. Retrieved 23 April 2023. "Events - Australian Monarchist League". Australian Monarchist League. Retrieved 17 April 2023. Sadler, Rachel (17 April 2023). "Chris Hipkins attending King Charles' coronation, NATO, visiting Australia this weekend". www.newshub.co.nz. Discovery NZ Limited. Retrieved 18 April 2023. "Coronation events". gg.govt.nz. Government House. 31 March 2023. Retrieved 24 April 2023. "Coronation Celebration 2023". nzafa.com. New Zealand Academy of Fine Arts. Retrieved 24 April 2023. Perry, Nick (26 April 2023). "New Zealand plants tree to mark coronation of King Charles". abcnews.go.com. ABC News Internet Ventures. Retrieved 26 April 2023. Daly, Michael (23 March 2023). "Kiwi coins fit for a king with NZ Post minting collector items for Charles' coronation". Stuff. Retrieved 27 March 2023. "BBC to suspend licence fee for King Charles coronation ceremony". The Guardian. 28 February 2023. Retrieved 28 February 2023. Bedigan, Mike (27 April 2023). "Global media outlet plans for coverage of the King's coronation". www.standard.co.uk. Evening Standard. Retrieved 27 April 2023. "Couronnement de Charles III | FranceTvPro.fr" [Coronation of Charles III]. FranceTvPro.fr (in French). 18 April 2023. Retrieved 26 April 2023. Parnaby, Laura (14 April 2023). "Most British people are not interested in King's coronation - poll". The Independent. "More than half of Britons think coronation shouldn't be publicly funded, new poll suggests". Sky News. 18 April 2023. Retrieved 20 April 2023. Schomberg, William (22 January 2023). "Anti-monarchists plan protests at coronation of Britain's King Charles". Reuters. Mortimer, Josiah (20 April 2023). "More Than 1,000 Anti-Monarchy Campaigners Set to Disrupt King Charles' Coronation". Byline Times. Retrieved 23 April 2023. "Coronation Protest". www.republic.org.uk. Retrieved 23 April 2023. Walker, James (23 March 2023). "Thousands rallying to demand independence on King's coronation". The National. Retrieved 5 April 2023. "The protest planned in Cardiff for the day of King Charles' coronation". www.walesonline.co.uk. Media Wales. 24 April 2023. Retrieved 26 April 2023. Williams, Craig (5 October 2022). "Stone of Destiny: hundreds back petition calling for it to stay in Scotland". The Herald. Retrieved 4 March 2023. Paton, Craig (4 March 2023). "Stone of Destiny should not be sent for coronation, says Salmond". The Independent. Retrieved 4 March 2023. Bibliography Blair, Claude, ed. (1998). The Crown Jewels: The History of the Coronation Regalia …. The Stationery Office. ISBN 978-0-11-701359-9. External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to Coronation of Charles III and Camilla. Official website The Coronation at the Royal Family website Coronation at the website of the Government of the United Kingdom Celebrate His Majesty’s Coronation at the website of the Government of Canada The Coronation of His Majesty the King and Her Majesty The Queen Consort at the website of the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet (Australian Government) Coronation of King Charles III and the Queen Consort at the website of the Governor-General of New Zealand Coronation at the website of the Isle of Man Government Coronation of His Majesty King Charles III at the website of the States of Guernsey vte Charles III King of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms (2022–present) Realms Antigua and BarbudaAustraliaBahamasBelizeCanadaGrenadaJamaicaNew ZealandPapua New GuineaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSolomon IslandsTuvaluUnited Kingdom Titles and honours Head of the CommonwealthDefender of the FaithSupreme Governor of the Church of EnglandHead of the British Armed ForcesCommander-in-Chief of the Canadian Armed ForcesLord of MannDuke of NormandyKing's Official Birthday Family Camilla Shand (wife)Diana Spencer (former wife)William, Prince of Wales (elder son)Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex (younger son)Elizabeth II (mother)Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (father)Anne, Princess Royal (sister)Prince Andrew, Duke of York (brother)Prince Edward, Duke of Edinburgh (brother)Mountbatten-Windsor (family) Life as Prince of Wales Investiture of the Prince of WalesFirst wedding guest listSecond wedding2022 State Opening of ParliamentBlack spider memosPrince of Wales v Associated Newspapers Ltd Accession and coronation Proclamation of accessionCoronation guest listCoronation quiche Reign HouseholdPrime ministersOperation Menai BridgeState and official visits Charities and campaigns Mutton Renaissance CampaignThe Prince's Charities British Asian TrustBusiness in the CommunityChildren & the ArtsIn Kind Directiwill CampaignThe Prince's Countryside FundThe Prince's FoundationThe Prince's Foundation for Integrated HealthThe Prince's School of Traditional ArtsThe Prince of Wales's Charitable FundRoyal Drawing SchoolTurquoise Mountain FoundationYouth Business ScotlandThe Prince's May Day NetworkThe Prince's TrustSustainable Markets Initiative Great Reset Residences As King Buckingham Palace (official)Windsor Castle (official)Holyrood Palace (official, Scotland)Hillsborough Castle (official, Northern Ireland)Sandringham House (private)Balmoral Castle (private)Craigowan Lodge (private) As Prince of Wales Clarence House (official)Highgrove House (private)BirkhallLlwynywermod Awards given and created List of awards receivedPrince of Wales's Intelligence Community AwardsPrince of Wales Prize for Municipal Heritage LeadershipThe Sun Military Awards Business ventures Duchy Home FarmDumfries HouseHighgrove House ShopsPoundburyWaitrose Duchy Organic Depictions Televised addresses Royal address to the nationRoyal Christmas Message Documentaries Royal Family (1969)Charles: The Private Man, the Public Role (1994)Monarchy: The Royal Family at Work (2007)Elizabeth at 90: A Family Tribute (2016) Film and television Chorus Girls (1981)Charles & Diana: A Royal Love Story (1982)The Royal Romance of Charles and Diana (1982)Spitting Image (1984–1996, 2020–2021)Charles and Diana: Unhappily Ever After (1992)Willi und die Windzors (1996)Whatever Love Means (2005)The Queen (2006 film)The Queen (2009 TV serial)King Charles III (2017 film)The Windsors (2016–2020 TV series)The Crown (2016–)The Prince (2021) Plays Her Royal Highness..? (1981)King Charles III (2014)Diana (2019/2021)The Windsors: Endgame (2021) Music Buckingham Blues (1983)Prince Charles (1986) Bibliography The Old Man of Lochnagar (1980)A Vision of Britain: A Personal View of Architecture (1989)Harmony: A New Way of Looking at Our World (2010)Climate Change (2023) Eponyms Prince Charles IslandPrince Charles stream tree frog ← Elizabeth II vte Camilla, Queen Consort Queen consort of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms (2022–present) Family Charles III (husband)Andrew Parker Bowles (former husband)Tom Parker Bowles (son)Laura Lopes (daughter)Bruce Shand (father)Rosalind Cubitt (mother)Annabel Elliot (sister)Mark Shand (brother) Life events CamillagateSecond wedding wedding dress2022 royal tour of Canada2022 State Opening of ParliamentCoronation guest listCoronation quiche Charities Royal Osteoporosis SocietyNational Literacy TrustBrooke Hospital for AnimalsEmmaus UKSt Catherine's School, BramleyJDRFRoyal Trinity HospiceWomen of the World Festival (WOW) Residences The Laines (Plumpton, East Sussex)Bolehyde Manor (Allington, Wiltshire)Middlewick House (Corsham, Wiltshire) Awards and recognition List of titles and honoursThe duch*ess of Cornwall AwardRosa 'duch*ess of Cornwall' Popular culture Whatever Love Means (2005 film)Queen Camilla (2006 novel)"How Do You Solve a Problem Like Camilla?" (2009 TV episode)The Windsors (2016–2020 TV series)The Crown (2019–present TV series)Spitting Image (2020–21 TV series)The Prince (2021 TV series)The Windsors: Endgame (2021 play) vte Coronation of the English, Scottish, and British monarchs Monarchs English Henry VIII and Catherine AnneEdward VIMary IElizabeth IJames I and Anne Scottish James VI AnneCharles II British George II and CarolineGeorge III and CharlotteGeorge IVWilliam IV and AdelaideVictoriaEdward VII and AlexandraGeorge V and MaryEdward VIII1George VI and ElizabethElizabeth IICharles III and Camilla Locations English Westminster AbbeyBath AbbeyWinchester CathedralGloucester Cathedral Scottish Scone AbbeyHolyrood AbbeyKelso AbbeyChapel Royal, Stirling CastleChurch of the Holy Rude British Westminster Abbey Participants Great Officers of StateArchbishops and Bishops Assistant of the Church of EnglandGarter Principal King of ArmsPeers of the RealmMistress of the RobesMaster of the RobesCourt of Claims Crowns Principal crowns St Edward's CrownImperial State Crown Specific crowns worn by monarchs George I's State CrownGeorge IV's Coronation CrownDiamond Diadem Consort crowns Mary of Modena's State CrownQueen Adelaide's CrownQueen Alexandra's CrownQueen Mary's CrownQueen Elizabeth The Queen Mother's Crown Items Processional objects Ceremonial macesSword of StateSword of Temporal JusticeSword of Spiritual JusticeSword of MercySword of OfferingSt Edward's Staff Anointing objects AmpullaCoronation Spoon Ornaments SpursArmillsSovereign's OrbSovereign's RingSovereign's Sceptre with CrossSovereign's Sceptre with DoveQueen Consort's RingQueen Consort's Sceptre with CrossQueen Consort's Ivory Rod with Dove Garments Robe of StateColobium sindonisSupertunicaStole RoyalRobe RoyalCoronation gloveImperial Robe Seats Coronation ChairStone of Scone Rituals Liber RegalisCoronation Oath 1 Coronation abandoned due to abdication. vte History of London Evolution LondiniumLundenwicCity of LondonCity of WestminsterMiddlesexCounty of LondonGreater LondonTimeline Periods Roman LondonAnglo-Saxon LondonNorman and Medieval LondonTudor LondonStuart London 18th-century London19th-century London1900–1939World War II (The Blitz)1945–200021st century Events CoronationsPeasants' RevoltBlack DeathGreat PlagueGreat Fire1854 cholera outbreakGreat StinkGreat Exhibition1908 Franco-British ExhibitionThe Battle of Cable StreetFestival of BritainGreat SmogAbdication of Edward VIIISwinging LondonLondon Plan1966 FIFA World Cup FinalHyde Park and Regent's Park bombingsAnti-war protests7/7 bombingsOlympic Games (190819482012)2012 Summer ParalympicsGrenfell Tower fireCOVID-19 pandemic Government Historic Metropolitan Board of WorksLondon County CouncilGreater London CouncilCurrent Greater London AuthorityLondon AssemblyMayor of London Politics Parties LabourConservativesLiberal DemocratsLondon independence Services Bow Street RunnersMetropolitan PoliceLondon Ambulance ServiceLondon Fire BrigadePort of London AuthorityLondon sewer systemLondon UndergroundLondon Metropolitan Archives City of London City of London CorporationLord Mayor of the City of LondonWards of the City of LondonGuildhallLivery CompaniesLord Mayor's ShowCity of London PoliceBank of England Structures St Paul's CathedralTower of LondonPalace of WhitehallWestminster HallLondon BridgeTower BridgeWestminster AbbeyBig BenThe MonumentFortifications Category Categories: Coronation of Charles III and CamillaMay 2023 events in the United Kingdom2023 in London2023 in British television2023 in international relationsCharles IIICamilla, Queen ConsortCoronations of British monarchsScheduled eventsWestminster Abbey2020s in the City of Westminster Elizabeth II Article Talk Read View source View history Tools Featured article Extended-protected article Listen to this article "Elizabeth of the United Kingdom" redirects here. For other uses, see Elizabeth of the United Kingdom (disambiguation) and Elizabeth II (disambiguation). Elizabeth II Head of the Commonwealth Elizabeth facing right in a half-length portrait photograph Formal portrait, 1959 Queen of the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms (list) Reign 6 February 1952 – 8 September 2022 Coronation 2 June 1953 Predecessor George VI Successor Charles III Born Princess Elizabeth of York 21 April 1926 Mayfair, London, England Died 8 September 2022 (aged 96) Balmoral Castle, Aberdeenshire, Scotland Burial 19 September 2022 King George VI Memorial Chapel, St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle Spouse Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (m. 1947; died 2021) Issue Detail Charles III Anne, Princess Royal Prince Andrew, Duke of York Prince Edward, Duke of Edinburgh Names Elizabeth Alexandra Mary House Windsor Father George VI Mother Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon Religion Protestant[a] Signature Elizabeth's signature in black ink Elizabeth's voice 5:46 Speech on her 21st birthday in Cape Town, South Africa Recorded on 21 April 1947 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; 21 April 1926 – 8 September 2022) was Queen of the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms from 6 February 1952 until her death in 2022. She was queen regnant of 32 sovereign states during her lifetime and was head of state of 15 realms at the time of her death. Her reign of 70 years and 214 days was the longest of any British monarch and the longest verified reign of any female head of state in history. Elizabeth was born in Mayfair, London, as the first child of the Duke and duch*ess of York (later King George VI and Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother). Her father acceded to the throne in 1936 upon the abdication of his brother Edward VIII, making the ten-year-old Princess Elizabeth the heir presumptive. She was educated privately at home and began to undertake public duties during the Second World War, serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. In November 1947, she married Philip Mountbatten, a former prince of Greece and Denmark, and their marriage lasted 73 years until his death in 2021. They had four children: Charles, Anne, Andrew, and Edward. When her father died in February 1952, Elizabeth—then 25 years old—became queen of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan, and Ceylon (known today as Sri Lanka), as well as head of the Commonwealth. Elizabeth reigned as a constitutional monarch through major political changes such as the Troubles in Northern Ireland, devolution in the United Kingdom, the decolonisation of Africa, and the United Kingdom's accession to the European Communities and withdrawal from the European Union. The number of her realms varied over time as territories gained independence and some realms became republics. As queen, Elizabeth was served by more than 170 prime ministers across her realms. Her many historic visits and meetings included state visits to China in 1986, to Russia in 1994, and to the Republic of Ireland in 2011, and meetings with five popes. Significant events included Elizabeth's coronation in 1953 and the celebrations of her Silver, Golden, Diamond, and Platinum jubilees in 1977, 2002, 2012, and 2022, respectively. Although she faced occasional republican sentiment and media criticism of her family—particularly after the breakdowns of her children's marriages, her annus horribilis in 1992, and the death in 1997 of her former daughter-in-law Diana—support for the monarchy in the United Kingdom remained consistently high throughout her lifetime, as did her personal popularity. Elizabeth died aged 96 at Balmoral Castle, Aberdeenshire, in September 2022 and was succeeded by her eldest son, Charles III. Silver Jubilee Leaders of the G7 states, members of the royal family and Elizabeth (centre), London, 1977 In 1977, Elizabeth marked the Silver Jubilee of her accession. Parties and events took place throughout the Commonwealth, many coinciding with her associated national and Commonwealth tours. The celebrations re-affirmed Elizabeth's popularity, despite virtually coincident negative press coverage of Princess Margaret's separation from her husband, Lord Snowdon.[110] In 1978, Elizabeth endured a state visit to the United Kingdom by Romania's communist leader, Nicolae Ceaușescu, and his wife, Elena,[111] though privately she thought they had "blood on their hands".[112] The following year brought two blows: one was the unmasking of Anthony Blunt, former Surveyor of the Queen's Pictures, as a communist spy; the other was the assassination of her uncle-in-law Lord Mountbatten by the Provisional Irish Republican Army.[113] According to Paul Martin Sr., by the end of the 1970s, Elizabeth was worried the Crown "had little meaning for" Pierre Trudeau, the Canadian prime minister.[114] Tony Benn said Elizabeth found Trudeau "rather disappointing".[114] Trudeau's supposed republicanism seemed to be confirmed by his antics, such as sliding down banisters at Buckingham Palace and pirouetting behind Elizabeth's back in 1977, and the removal of various Canadian royal symbols during his term of office.[114] In 1980, Canadian politicians sent to London to discuss the patriation of the Canadian constitution found Elizabeth "better informed ... than any of the British politicians or bureaucrats".[114] She was particularly interested after the failure of Bill C-60, which would have affected her role as head of state.[114] Press scrutiny and Thatcher premiership Elizabeth in red uniform on a black horse Riding Burmese at the 1986 Trooping the Colour ceremony During the 1981 Trooping the Colour ceremony, six weeks before the wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer, six shots were fired at Elizabeth from close range as she rode down The Mall, London, on her horse, Burmese. Police later discovered the shots were blanks. The 17-year-old assailant, Marcus Sarjeant, was sentenced to five years in prison and released after three.[115] Elizabeth's composure and skill in controlling her mount were widely praised.[116] That October, Elizabeth was the subject of another attack while on a visit to Dunedin, New Zealand. Christopher John Lewis, who was 17 years old, fired a shot with a .22 rifle from the fifth floor of a building overlooking the parade but missed.[117] Lewis was arrested, but instead of being charged with attempted murder or treason was sentenced to three years in jail for unlawful possession and discharge of a firearm. Two years into his sentence, he attempted to escape a psychiatric hospital with the intention of assassinating Charles, who was visiting the country with Diana and their son Prince William.[118] Elizabeth and Ronald Reagan on black horses. He bare-headed; she in a headscarf; both in tweeds, jodhpurs and riding boots. Riding at Windsor with President Reagan, June 1982 From April to September 1982, Elizabeth's son, Prince Andrew, served with British forces in the Falklands War, for which she reportedly felt anxiety[119] and pride.[120] On 9 July, she awoke in her bedroom at Buckingham Palace to find an intruder, Michael fa*gan, in the room with her. In a serious lapse of security, assistance only arrived after two calls to the Palace police switchboard.[121] After hosting US president Ronald Reagan at Windsor Castle in 1982 and visiting his California ranch in 1983, Elizabeth was angered when his administration ordered the invasion of Grenada, one of her Caribbean realms, without informing her.[122] Intense media interest in the opinions and private lives of the royal family during the 1980s led to a series of sensational stories in the press, pioneered by The Sun tabloid.[123] As Kelvin MacKenzie, editor of The Sun, told his staff: "Give me a Sunday for Monday splash on the Royals. Don't worry if it's not true—so long as there's not too much of a fuss about it afterwards."[124] Newspaper editor Donald Trelford wrote in The Observer of 21 September 1986: "The royal soap opera has now reached such a pitch of public interest that the boundary between fact and fiction has been lost sight of ... it is not just that some papers don't check their facts or accept denials: they don't care if the stories are true or not." It was reported, most notably in The Sunday Times of 20 July 1986, that Elizabeth was worried that Margaret Thatcher's economic policies fostered social divisions and was alarmed by high unemployment, a series of riots, the violence of a miners' strike, and Thatcher's refusal to apply sanctions against the apartheid regime in South Africa. The sources of the rumours included royal aide Michael Shea and Commonwealth secretary-general Shridath Ramphal, but Shea claimed his remarks were taken out of context and embellished by speculation.[125] Thatcher reputedly said Elizabeth would vote for the Social Democratic Party—Thatcher's political opponents.[126] Thatcher's biographer, John Campbell, claimed "the report was a piece of journalistic mischief-making".[127] Reports of acrimony between them were exaggerated,[128] and Elizabeth gave two honours in her personal gift—membership in the Order of Merit and the Order of the Garter—to Thatcher after her replacement as prime minister by John Major.[129] Brian Mulroney, Canadian prime minister between 1984 and 1993, said Elizabeth was a "behind the scenes force" in ending apartheid.[130][131] With Philip and their four eldest grandchildren, 1987 In 1986, Elizabeth paid a six-day state visit to the People's Republic of China, becoming the first British monarch to visit the country.[132] The tour included the Forbidden City, the Great Wall of China, and the Terracotta Warriors.[133] At a state banquet, Elizabeth joked about the first British emissary to China being lost at sea with Queen Elizabeth I's letter to the Wanli Emperor, and remarked, "fortunately postal services have improved since 1602".[134] Elizabeth's visit also signified the acceptance of both countries that sovereignty over Hong Kong would be transferred from the United Kingdom to China in 1997.[135] By the end of the 1980s, Elizabeth had become the target of satire.[136] The involvement of younger members of the royal family in the charity game show It's a Royal Knockout in 1987 was ridiculed.[137] In Canada, Elizabeth publicly supported politically divisive constitutional amendments, prompting criticism from opponents of the proposed changes, including Pierre Trudeau.[130] The same year, the elected Fijian government was deposed in a military coup. As monarch of Fiji, Elizabeth supported the attempts of Governor-General Ratu Sir Penaia Ganilau to assert executive power and negotiate a settlement. Coup leader Sitiveni Rabuka deposed Ganilau and declared Fiji a republic.[138] Turbulent 1990s and annus horribilis In the wake of coalition victory in the Gulf War, Elizabeth became the first British monarch to address a joint meeting of the United States Congress in May 1991.[139] Elizabeth, in formal dress, holds a pair of spectacles to her mouth in a thoughtful pose With Philip in Germany, October 1992 On 24 November 1992, in a speech to mark the Ruby Jubilee of her accession to the throne, Elizabeth called 1992 her annus horribilis (a Latin phrase, meaning "horrible year").[140] Republican feeling in Britain had risen because of press estimates of Elizabeth's private wealth—contradicted by the Palace[d]—and reports of affairs and strained marriages among her extended family.[145] In March, her second son, Prince Andrew, separated from his wife, Sarah, and Mauritius removed Elizabeth as head of state; her daughter, Princess Anne, divorced Captain Mark Phillips in April;[146] angry demonstrators in Dresden threw eggs at Elizabeth during a state visit to Germany in October;[147] and a large fire broke out at Windsor Castle, one of her official residences, in November. The monarchy came under increased criticism and public scrutiny.[148] In an unusually personal speech, Elizabeth said that any institution must expect criticism, but suggested it might be done with "a touch of humour, gentleness and understanding".[149] Two days later, British prime minister John Major announced plans to reform the royal finances, drawn up the previous year, including Elizabeth paying income tax from 1993 onwards, and a reduction in the civil list.[150] In December, Prince Charles and his wife, Diana, formally separated.[151] At the end of the year, Elizabeth sued The Sun newspaper for breach of copyright when it published the text of her annual Christmas message two days before it was broadcast. The newspaper was forced to pay her legal fees and donated £200,000 to charity.[152] Elizabeth's solicitors had taken successful action against The Sun five years earlier for breach of copyright after it published a photograph of her daughter-in-law, the duch*ess of York, and her granddaughter Princess Beatrice.[153] In January 1994, Elizabeth broke the scaphoid bone in her left wrist as the horse she was riding at Sandringham tripped and fell.[154] In October 1994, she became the first reigning British monarch to set foot on Russian soil.[e] In October 1995, Elizabeth was tricked into a hoax call by Montreal radio host Pierre Brassard impersonating Canadian prime minister Jean Chrétien. Elizabeth, who believed that she was speaking to Chrétien, said she supported Canadian unity and would try to influence Quebec's referendum on proposals to break away from Canada.[159] In the year that followed, public revelations on the state of Charles and Diana's marriage continued.[160] In consultation with her husband and John Major, as well as the Archbishop of Canterbury (George Carey) and her private secretary (Robert Fellowes), Elizabeth wrote to Charles and Diana at the end of December 1995, suggesting that a divorce would be advisable.[161] In August 1997, a year after the divorce, Diana was killed in a car crash in Paris. Elizabeth was on holiday with her extended family at Balmoral. Diana's two sons, Princes William and Harry, wanted to attend church, so Elizabeth and Philip took them that morning.[162] Afterwards, for five days, the royal couple shielded their grandsons from the intense press interest by keeping them at Balmoral where they could grieve in private,[163] but the royal family's silence and seclusion, and the failure to fly a flag at half-mast over Buckingham Palace, caused public dismay.[131][164] Pressured by the hostile reaction, Elizabeth agreed to return to London and address the nation in a live television broadcast on 5 September, the day before Diana's funeral.[165] In the broadcast, she expressed admiration for Diana and her feelings "as a grandmother" for the two princes.[166] As a result, much of the public hostility evaporated.[166] In October 1997, Elizabeth and Philip made a state visit to India, which included a controversial visit to the site of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre to pay her respects. Protesters chanted "Killer Queen, go back",[167] and there were demands for her to apologise for the action of British troops 78 years earlier.[168] At the memorial in the park, she and Philip laid a wreath and stood for a 30‑second moment of silence.[168] As a result, much of the fury among the public softened, and the protests were called off.[167] That November, Elizabeth and her husband held a reception at Banqueting House to mark their golden wedding anniversary.[169] Elizabeth made a speech and praised Philip for his role as a consort, referring to him as "my strength and stay".[169] In 1999, as part of the process of devolution within the UK, Elizabeth formally opened newly established legislatures for Wales and Scotland: the National Assembly for Wales at Cardiff in May,[170] and the Scottish Parliament at Edinburgh in July.[171] Golden Jubilee Golden Jubilee dinner with living British prime ministers, 2002: (left to right) Tony Blair, Margaret Thatcher, Edward Heath, Elizabeth, James Callaghan, John Major On the eve of the new millennium, Elizabeth and Philip boarded a vessel from Southwark, bound for the Millennium Dome. Before passing under Tower Bridge, Elizabeth lit the National Millennium Beacon in the Pool of London using a laser torch.[172] Shortly before midnight, she officially opened the Dome.[173] During the singing of Auld Lang Syne, Elizabeth held hands with Philip and British prime minister Tony Blair.[174] In 2002, Elizabeth marked her Golden Jubilee, the 50th anniversary of her accession. Her sister and mother died in February and March, respectively, and the media speculated on whether the Jubilee would be a success or a failure.[175] She again undertook an extensive tour of her realms, beginning in Jamaica in February, where she called the farewell banquet "memorable" after a power cut plunged King's House, the official residence of the governor-general, into darkness.[176] As in 1977, there were street parties and commemorative events, and monuments were named to honour the occasion. One million people attended each day of the three-day main Jubilee celebration in London,[177] and the enthusiasm shown for Elizabeth by the public was greater than many journalists had anticipated.[178] Greeting NASA employees at the Goddard Space Flight Center, Maryland, May 2007 In 2003, Elizabeth sued the Daily Mirror for breach of confidence and obtained an injunction which prevented the outlet from publishing information gathered by a reporter who posed as a footman at Buckingham Palace.[179] The newspaper also paid £25,000 towards her legal costs.[180] Though generally healthy throughout her life, in 2003 she had keyhole surgery on both knees. In October 2006, she missed the opening of the new Emirates Stadium because of a strained back muscle that had been troubling her since the summer.[181] In May 2007, citing unnamed sources, The Daily Telegraph reported that Elizabeth was "exasperated and frustrated" by the policies of Tony Blair, that she was concerned the British Armed Forces were overstretched in Iraq and Afghanistan, and that she had raised concerns over rural and countryside issues with Blair.[182] She was, however, said to admire Blair's efforts to achieve peace in Northern Ireland.[183] She became the first British monarch to celebrate a diamond wedding anniversary in November 2007.[184] On 20 March 2008, at the Church of Ireland St Patrick's Cathedral, Armagh, Elizabeth attended the first Maundy service held outside England and Wales.[185] Elizabeth addressed the UN General Assembly for a second time in 2010, again in her capacity as Queen of all Commonwealth realms and Head of the Commonwealth.[186] The UN secretary-general, Ban Ki-moon, introduced her as "an anchor for our age".[187] During her visit to New York, which followed a tour of Canada, she officially opened a memorial garden for British victims of the 9/11 attacks.[187] Elizabeth's 11-day visit to Australia in October 2011 was her 16th visit to the country since 1954.[188] By invitation of the Irish president, Mary McAleese, she made the first state visit to the Republic of Ireland by a British monarch in May 2011.[189] Diamond Jubilee and longevity Visiting Birmingham in July 2012 as part of the Diamond Jubilee tour Elizabeth's 2012 Diamond Jubilee marked 60 years on the throne, and celebrations were held throughout her realms, the wider Commonwealth, and beyond. She and her husband undertook an extensive tour of the United Kingdom, while her children and grandchildren embarked on royal tours of other Commonwealth states on her behalf.[190] On 4 June, Jubilee beacons were lit around the world.[191] On 18 December, she became the first British sovereign to attend a peacetime Cabinet meeting since George III in 1781.[192] Elizabeth, who opened the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal, also opened the 2012 Summer Olympics and Paralympics in London, making her the first head of state to open two Olympic Games in two countries.[193] For the London Olympics, she played herself in a short film as part of the opening ceremony, alongside Daniel Craig as James Bond.[194] On 4 April 2013, she received an honorary BAFTA for her patronage of the film industry and was called "the most memorable Bond girl yet" at the award ceremony.[195] Opening the Borders Railway on the day she became the longest-reigning British monarch, 2015. In her speech, she said she had never aspired to achieve that milestone.[196] On 3 March 2013, Elizabeth stayed overnight at King Edward VII's Hospital as a precaution after developing symptoms of gastroenteritis.[197] A week later, she signed the new Charter of the Commonwealth.[198] Because of her age and the need for her to limit travelling, in 2013 she chose not to attend the biennial Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting for the first time in 40 years. She was represented at the summit in Sri Lanka by Prince Charles.[199] On 20 April 2018, the Commonwealth heads of government announced that Charles would succeed her as Head of the Commonwealth, which she stated was her "sincere wish".[200] She underwent cataract surgery in May 2018.[201] In March 2019, she gave up driving on public roads, largely as a consequence of a car crash involving her husband two months earlier.[202] Elizabeth surpassed her great-great-grandmother, Queen Victoria, to become the longest-lived British monarch on 21 December 2007, and the longest-reigning British monarch and longest-reigning queen regnant and female head of state in the world on 9 September 2015.[203] She became the oldest current monarch after King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia died on 23 January 2015.[204] She later became the longest-reigning current monarch and the longest-serving current head of state following the death of King Bhumibol of Thailand on 13 October 2016,[205] and the oldest current head of state on the resignation of Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe on 21 November 2017.[206] On 6 February 2017, she became the first British monarch to commemorate a sapphire jubilee,[207] and on 20 November, she was the first British monarch to celebrate a platinum wedding anniversary.[208] Philip had retired from his official duties as the Queen's consort in August 2017.[209] COVID-19 pandemic On 19 March 2020, as the COVID-19 pandemic hit the United Kingdom, Elizabeth moved to Windsor Castle and sequestered there as a precaution.[210] Public engagements were cancelled and Windsor Castle followed a strict sanitary protocol nicknamed "HMS Bubble".[211] Virtual meeting with Cindy Kiro during the pandemic, October 2021 On 5 April, in a televised broadcast watched by an estimated 24 million viewers in the UK,[212] she asked people to "take comfort that while we may have more still to endure, better days will return: we will be with our friends again; we will be with our families again; we will meet again."[213] On 8 May, the 75th anniversary of VE Day, in a television broadcast at 9 pm—the exact time at which her father George VI had broadcast to the nation on the same day in 1945—she asked people to "never give up, never despair".[214] In October, she visited the UK's Defence Science and Technology Laboratory in Wiltshire, her first public engagement since the start of the pandemic.[215] On 4 November, she appeared masked for the first time in public, during a private pilgrimage to the Tomb of the Unknown Warrior at Westminster Abbey, to mark the centenary of his burial.[216] In 2021, she received her first and second COVID-19 vaccinations in January and April respectively.[217] Prince Philip died on 9 April 2021, after 73 years of marriage, making Elizabeth the first British monarch to reign as a widow or widower since Queen Victoria.[218] She was reportedly at her husband's bedside when he died,[219] and remarked in private that his death had "left a huge void".[220] Due to the COVID-19 restrictions in place in England at the time, Elizabeth sat alone at Philip's funeral service, which evoked sympathy from people around the world.[221] In her Christmas broadcast that year, which was ultimately her last, she paid a personal tribute to her "beloved Philip", saying, "That mischievous, inquiring twinkle was as bright at the end as when I first set eyes on him".[222] Despite the pandemic, Elizabeth attended the 2021 State Opening of Parliament in May,[223] and the 47th G7 summit in June.[224] On 5 July, the 73rd anniversary of the founding of the UK's National Health Service, she announced that the NHS would be awarded the George Cross to "recognise all NHS staff, past and present, across all disciplines and all four nations".[225] In October 2021, she began using a walking stick during public engagements for the first time since her operation in 2004.[226] Following an overnight stay in hospital on 20 October, her previously scheduled visits to Northern Ireland,[227] the COP26 summit in Glasgow,[228] and the 2021 National Service of Remembrance were cancelled on health grounds.[229] On Christmas Day 2021, while she was staying at Windsor Castle, 19-year-old Jaswant Singh Chail broke into the gardens using a rope ladder and carrying a crossbow with the aim of assassinating Elizabeth in revenge for the Amritsar massacre. Before he could enter any buildings, he was arrested and detained under the Mental Health Act. In 2023, he pled guilty to attempting to injure or alarm the sovereign.[230] Platinum Jubilee With the royal family on the balcony of Buckingham Palace following the Platinum Jubilee Pageant, June 2022 Elizabeth's Platinum Jubilee began on 6 February 2022, marking 70 years since she acceded to the throne on her father's death. On the eve of the date, she held a reception at Sandringham House for pensioners, local Women's Institute members and charity volunteers.[231] In her accession day message, Elizabeth renewed her commitment to a lifetime of public service, which she had originally made in 1947.[232] Later that month, Elizabeth had "mild cold-like symptoms" and tested positive for COVID-19, along with some staff and family members.[233] She cancelled two virtual audiences on 22 February,[234] but held a phone conversation with British prime minister Boris Johnson the following day amid a crisis on the Russo-Ukrainian border,[f][235] following which she made a donation to the Disasters Emergency Committee (DEC) Ukraine Humanitarian Appeal.[236] On 28 February, she was reported to have recovered and spent time with her family at Frogmore.[237] On 7 March, Elizabeth met Canadian prime minister Justin Trudeau at Windsor Castle, in her first in-person engagement since her COVID diagnosis.[238] She later remarked that COVID infection "leave[s] one very tired and exhausted ... It's not a nice result".[239] Elizabeth was present at the service of thanksgiving for Prince Philip at Westminster Abbey on 29 March,[240] but was unable to attend the annual Commonwealth Day service that month[241] or the Royal Maundy service in April.[242] She missed the State Opening of Parliament in May for the first time in 59 years. (She did not attend in 1959 and 1963 as she was pregnant with Prince Andrew and Prince Edward, respectively.)[243] In her absence, Parliament was opened by the Prince of Wales and the Duke of Cambridge as counsellors of state.[244] During the Platinum Jubilee celebrations, Elizabeth was largely confined to balcony appearances and missed the National Service of Thanksgiving.[245] For the Jubilee concert, she took part in a sketch with Paddington Bear, that opened the event outside Buckingham Palace.[246] On 13 June, she became the second-longest reigning monarch in history among those whose exact dates of reign are known, with 70 years, 127 days reigned—surpassing King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand.[247] On 6 September, she appointed her 15th British prime minister, Liz Truss, at Balmoral Castle in Scotland. This marked the only time she did not receive a new prime minister at Buckingham Palace during her reign.[248] No other British reign had seen so many prime ministers.[249] The Queen's last public message was issued on 7 September to her Canadian people, in the aftermath of the Saskatchewan stabbings.[250] Elizabeth never planned to abdicate,[251] though she took on fewer public engagements as she grew older and Prince Charles took on more of her duties.[252] The Queen told Canadian governor-general Adrienne Clarkson in a meeting in 2002 that she would never abdicate, saying "It is not our tradition. Although, I suppose if I became completely gaga, one would have to do something".[253] In June 2022, Elizabeth met the Archbishop of Canterbury, Justin Welby, who "came away thinking there is someone who has no fear of death, has hope in the future, knows the rock on which she stands and that gives her strength."[254] Death Main article: Death and state funeral of Elizabeth II Tributes left in The Mall, London On 8 September 2022, Buckingham Palace released a statement which read: "Following further evaluation this morning, the Queen's doctors are concerned for Her Majesty's health and have recommended she remain under medical supervision. The Queen remains comfortable and at Balmoral."[255][256] Her immediate family rushed to Balmoral to be by her side.[257][258] She died peacefully at 15:10 BST at the age of 96, with two of her children, Charles and Anne, by her side.[259][260] Her death was announced to the public at 18:30,[261][262] setting in motion Operation London Bridge and, because she died in Scotland, Operation Unicorn.[263][264] Elizabeth was the first monarch to die in Scotland since James V in 1542.[265] Her death certificate recorded her cause of death as "old age".[259][266] On 12 September, Elizabeth's coffin was carried up the Royal Mile in a procession to St Giles' Cathedral, where the Crown of Scotland was placed on it.[267] Her coffin lay at rest at the cathedral for 24 hours, guarded by the Royal Company of Archers, during which around 33,000 people filed past the coffin.[268] It was taken by air to London on 13 September. On 14 September, her coffin was taken in a military procession from Buckingham Palace to Westminster Hall, where Elizabeth lay in state for four days. The coffin was guarded by members of both the Sovereign's Bodyguard and the Household Division. An estimated 250,000 members of the public filed past the coffin, as did politicians and other public figures.[269][270] On 16 September, Elizabeth's children held a vigil around her coffin, and the next day her eight grandchildren did the same.[271][272] Elizabeth's coffin on the State Gun Carriage of the Royal Navy, during the procession to Wellington Arch Elizabeth's state funeral was held at Westminster Abbey on 19 September, which marked the first time that a monarch's funeral service had been held at the Abbey since George II in 1760.[273] More than a million people lined the streets of central London,[274] and the day was declared a holiday in several Commonwealth countries. In Windsor, a final procession involving 1,000 military personnel took place, which 97,000 people witnessed.[275][274] Elizabeth's fell pony, and two royal corgis, stood at the side of the procession.[276] After a committal service at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, Elizabeth was interred with her husband Philip in the King George VI Memorial Chapel later the same day, in a private ceremony attended by her closest family members.[277][278][279][280] Legacy Main article: Personality and image of Elizabeth II Beliefs, activities, and interests Petting a dog in New Zealand, 1974 Elizabeth rarely gave interviews, and little was known of her political opinions, which she did not express explicitly in public. It is against convention to ask or reveal the monarch's views. When Times journalist Paul Routledge asked her about the miners' strike of 1984–85 during a royal tour of the newspaper's offices, she replied that it was "all about one man" (a reference to Arthur Scargill),[281] with which Routledge disagreed.[282] Routledge was widely criticised in the media for asking the question and claimed that he was unaware of the protocols.[282] After the 2014 Scottish independence referendum, Prime Minister David Cameron was overheard saying that Elizabeth was pleased with the outcome.[283] She had arguably issued a public coded statement about the referendum by telling one woman outside Balmoral Kirk that she hoped people would think "very carefully" about the outcome. It emerged later that Cameron had specifically requested that she register her concern.[284] Elizabeth had a deep sense of religious and civic duty, and took her Coronation Oath seriously.[285] Aside from her official religious role as Supreme Governor of the established Church of England, she worshipped with that church and also the national Church of Scotland.[286] She demonstrated support for inter-faith relations and met with leaders of other churches and religions, including five popes: Pius XII, John XXIII, John Paul II, Benedict XVI and Francis.[287] A personal note about her faith often featured in her annual Christmas Message broadcast to the Commonwealth. In 2000, she said:[288] To many of us, our beliefs are of fundamental importance. For me the teachings of Christ and my own personal accountability before God provide a framework in which I try to lead my life. I, like so many of you, have drawn great comfort in difficult times from Christ's words and example. Elizabeth was patron of more than 600 organisations and charities.[289] The Charities Aid Foundation estimated that Elizabeth helped raise over £1.4 billion for her patronages during her reign.[290] Her main leisure interests included equestrianism and dogs, especially her Pembroke Welsh Corgis.[291] Her lifelong love of corgis began in 1933 with Dookie, the first corgi owned by her family.[292] Scenes of a relaxed, informal home life were occasionally witnessed; she and her family, from time to time, prepared a meal together and washed the dishes afterwards.[293] Media depiction and public opinion In the 1950s, as a young woman at the start of her reign, Elizabeth was depicted as a glamorous "fairytale Queen".[294] After the trauma of the Second World War, it was a time of hope, a period of progress and achievement heralding a "new Elizabethan age".[295] Lord Altrincham's accusation in 1957 that her speeches sounded like those of a "priggish schoolgirl" was an extremely rare criticism.[296] In the late 1960s, attempts to portray a more modern image of the monarchy were made in the television documentary Royal Family and by televising Prince Charles's investiture as Prince of Wales.[297] Elizabeth also instituted other new practices; her first royal walkabout, meeting ordinary members of the public, took place during a tour of Australia and New Zealand in 1970.[298] Her wardrobe developed a recognisable, signature style driven more by function than fashion.[299] In public, she took to wearing mostly solid-colour overcoats and decorative hats, allowing her to be seen easily in a crowd.[300] At Elizabeth's Silver Jubilee in 1977, the crowds and celebrations were genuinely enthusiastic;[301] but, in the 1980s, public criticism of the royal family increased, as the personal and working lives of Elizabeth's children came under media scrutiny.[302] Her popularity sank to a low point in the 1990s. Under pressure from public opinion, she began to pay income tax for the first time, and Buckingham Palace was opened to the public.[303] Although support for republicanism in Britain seemed higher than at any time in living memory, republican ideology was still a minority viewpoint, and Elizabeth herself had high approval ratings.[304] Criticism was focused on the institution of the monarchy itself, and the conduct of Elizabeth's wider family, rather than her own behaviour and actions.[305] Discontent with the monarchy reached its peak on the death of Diana, Princess of Wales, although Elizabeth's personal popularity—as well as general support for the monarchy—rebounded after her live television broadcast to the world five days after Diana's death.[306] In Brisbane, Australia, 1982 In November 1999, a referendum in Australia on the future of the Australian monarchy favoured its retention in preference to an indirectly elected head of state.[307] Many republicans credited Elizabeth's personal popularity with the survival of the monarchy in Australia. In 2010, Prime Minister Julia Gillard noted that there was a "deep affection" for Elizabeth in Australia and that another referendum on the monarchy should wait until after her reign.[308] Gillard's successor, Malcolm Turnbull, who led the republican campaign in 1999, similarly believed that Australians would not vote to become a republic in her lifetime.[309] "She's been an extraordinary head of state", Turnbull said in 2021, "and I think frankly, in Australia, there are more Elizabethans than there are monarchists".[310] Similarly, referendums in both Tuvalu in 2008 and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines in 2009 saw voters reject proposals to become republics.[311] Polls in Britain in 2006 and 2007 revealed strong support for the monarchy,[312] and in 2012, Elizabeth's Diamond Jubilee year, her approval ratings hit 90 per cent.[313] Her family came under scrutiny again in the last few years of her life due to her son Andrew's association with convicted sex offenders Jeffrey Epstein and Ghislaine Maxwell, his lawsuit with Virginia Giuffre amidst accusations of sexual impropriety, and her grandson Harry and his wife Meghan's exit from the working royal family and subsequent move to the United States.[314] Polling in Great Britain during the Platinum Jubilee, however, showed support for maintaining the monarchy[315] and Elizabeth's personal popularity remained strong.[316] As of 2021 she remained the third most admired woman in the world according to the annual Gallup poll, her 52 appearances on the list meaning she had been in the top ten more than any other woman in the poll's history.[317] Elizabeth was portrayed in a variety of media by many notable artists, including painters Pietro Annigoni, Peter Blake, Chinwe Chukwuogo-Roy, Terence Cuneo, Lucian Freud, Rolf Harris, Damien Hirst, Juliet Pannett and Tai-Shan Schierenberg.[318][319] Notable photographers of Elizabeth included Cecil Beaton, Yousuf Karsh, Anwar Hussein, Annie Leibovitz, Lord Lichfield, Terry O'Neill, John Swannell and Dorothy Wilding. The first official portrait photograph of Elizabeth was taken by Marcus Adams in 1926.[320] Titles, styles, honours, and arms Main article: List of titles and honours of Elizabeth II Titles and styles Royal cypher of Elizabeth II, surmounted by St Edward's Crown Personal flag of Elizabeth II Elizabeth held many titles and honorary military positions throughout the Commonwealth, was sovereign of many orders in her own countries and received honours and awards from around the world. In each of her realms, she had a distinct title that follows a similar formula: Queen of Saint Lucia and of Her other Realms and Territories in Saint Lucia, Queen of Australia and Her other Realms and Territories in Australia, etc. In the Channel Islands and Isle of Man, which are Crown Dependencies rather than separate realms, she was known as Duke of Normandy and Lord of Mann, respectively. Additional styles include Defender of the Faith and Duke of Lancaster. Arms See also: Flags of Elizabeth II From 21 April 1944 until her accession, Elizabeth's arms consisted of a lozenge bearing the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom differenced with a label of three points argent, the centre point bearing a Tudor rose and the first and third a cross of St George.[321] Upon her accession, she inherited the various arms her father held as sovereign. Elizabeth also possessed royal standards and personal flags for use in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, and elsewhere.[322] Issue Name Birth Marriage Children Grandchildren Date Spouse Charles III 14 November 1948 (age 74) 29 July 1981 Divorced 28 August 1996 Lady Diana Spencer William, Prince of Wales Prince George of Wales Princess Charlotte of Wales Prince Louis of Wales Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex Prince Archie of Sussex Princess Lilibet of Sussex 9 April 2005 Camilla Parker Bowles None Anne, Princess Royal 15 August 1950 (age 72) 14 November 1973 Divorced 23 April 1992 Mark Phillips Peter Phillips Savannah Phillips Isla Phillips Zara Tindall Mia Tindall Lena Tindall Lucas Tindall 12 December 1992 Timothy Laurence None Prince Andrew, Duke of York 19 February 1960 (age 63) 23 July 1986 Divorced 30 May 1996 Sarah Ferguson Princess Beatrice, Mrs Edoardo Mapelli Mozzi Sienna Mapelli Mozzi Princess Eugenie, Mrs Jack Brooksbank August Brooksbank Prince Edward, Duke of Edinburgh 10 March 1964 (age 59) 19 June 1999 Sophie Rhys-Jones Lady Louise Mountbatten-Windsor None James Mountbatten-Windsor, Earl of Wessex None Ancestry Ancestors of Elizabeth II[323] See also Finances of the British royal family Household of Elizabeth II List of things named after Elizabeth II List of jubilees of Elizabeth II List of special addresses made by Elizabeth II Royal eponyms in Canada Royal descendants of Queen Victoria and of King Christian IX List of covers of Time magazine (1920s), (1940s), (1950s), (2010s) Notes As monarch, Elizabeth was Supreme Governor of the Church of England. She was also a member of the Church of Scotland. Her godparents were: King George V and Queen Mary; Lord Strathmore; Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (her paternal great-granduncle); Princess Mary, Viscountess Lascelles (her paternal aunt); and Lady Elphinstone (her maternal aunt).[4] Television coverage of the coronation was instrumental in boosting the medium's popularity; the number of television licences in the United Kingdom doubled to 3 million,[73] and many of the more than 20 million British viewers watched television for the first time in the homes of their friends or neighbours.[74] In North America, almost 100 million viewers watched recorded broadcasts.[75] The Sunday Times Rich List 1989 put her number one on the list with a reported wealth of £5.2 billion (approximately £13.8 billion in today's value),[141] but it included state assets like the Royal Collection that were not hers personally.[142] In 1993, Buckingham Palace called estimates of £100 million "grossly overstated".[143] In 1971, Jock Colville, her former private secretary and a director of her bank, Coutts, estimated her wealth at £2 million (equivalent to about £14 million in 1993[141]).[144] The only previous state visit by a British monarch to Russia was made by King Edward VII in 1908. The King never stepped ashore, and met Nicholas II on royal yachts off the Baltic port of what is now Tallinn, Estonia.[155][156] During the four-day visit, which was considered to be one of the most important foreign trips of Elizabeth's reign,[157] she and Philip attended events in Moscow and Saint Petersburg.[158] Russia invaded Ukraine one day later. References Citations "No. 33153", The London Gazette, 21 April 1926, p. 1 Bradford 2012, p. 22; Brandreth 2004, p. 103; Marr 2011, p. 76; Pimlott 2001, pp. 2–3; Lacey 2002, pp. 75–76; Roberts 2000, p. 74 Hoey 2002, p. 40 Brandreth 2004, p. 103; Hoey 2002, p. 40 Brandreth 2004, p. 103 Pimlott 2001, p. 12 Williamson 1987, p. 205 Pimlott 2001, p. 15 Lacey 2002, p. 56; Nicolson 1952, p. 433; Pimlott 2001, pp. 14–16 Crawford 1950, p. 26; Pimlott 2001, p. 20; Shawcross 2002, p. 21 Brandreth 2004, p. 124; Lacey 2002, pp. 62–63; Pimlott 2001, pp. 24, 69 Brandreth 2004, pp. 108–110; Lacey 2002, pp. 159–161; Pimlott 2001, pp. 20, 163 Brandreth 2004, pp. 108–110 Brandreth 2004, p. 105; Lacey 2002, p. 81; Shawcross 2002, pp. 21–22 Brandreth 2004, pp. 105–106 Crawford 1950, pp. 14–34; Heald 2007, pp. 7–8; Warwick 2002, pp. 35–39 Bond 2006, p. 8; Lacey 2002, p. 76; Pimlott 2001, p. 3 Lacey 2002, pp. 97–98 Marr 2011, pp. 78, 85; Pimlott 2001, pp. 71–73 Brandreth 2004, p. 124; Crawford 1950, p. 85; Lacey 2002, p. 112; Marr 2011, p. 88; Pimlott 2001, p. 51; Shawcross 2002, p. 25 "Her Majesty The Queen: Early life and education", Royal Household, 29 December 2015, archived from the original on 7 May 2016, retrieved 18 April 2016 Marr 2011, p. 84; Pimlott 2001, p. 47 Pimlott 2001, p. 54 Pimlott 2001, p. 55 Warwick 2002, p. 102 Goodey, Emma (21 December 2015), "Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother", The Royal Family, Royal Household, archived from the original on 7 May 2016, retrieved 18 April 2016 Crawford 1950, pp. 104–114; Pimlott 2001, pp. 56–57 Crawford 1950, pp. 114–119; Pimlott 2001, p. 57 Crawford 1950, pp. 137–141 "Children's Hour: Princess Elizabeth", BBC Archive, 13 October 1940, archived from the original on 27 November 2019, retrieved 22 July 2009 "Early public life", Royal Household, archived from the original on 28 March 2010, retrieved 20 April 2010 Pimlott 2001, p. 71 "No. 36973", The London Gazette (Supplement), 6 March 1945, p. 1315 Bradford 2012, p. 45; Lacey 2002, p. 148; Marr 2011, p. 100; Pimlott 2001, p. 75; "No. 37205", The London Gazette (Supplement), 31 July 1945, p. 3972; Rothman, Lily (25 May 2018), "The World War II Auto Mechanic in This Photo Is Queen Elizabeth II. Here's the Story Behind the Picture", Time, archived from the original on 6 June 2022, retrieved 8 September 2022; Barr, Sabrina (22 April 2020), "Our Queen at War: Princess Elizabeth's role in the British armed forces during the Second World War", The Independent, archived from the original on 14 September 2022, retrieved 15 September 2022 Bond 2006, p. 10; Pimlott 2001, p. 79 "Royal plans to beat nationalism", BBC News, 8 March 2005, archived from the original on 8 February 2012, retrieved 15 June 2010 Pimlott 2001, pp. 71–73 "Gorsedd of the Bards", National Museum of Wales, archived from the original on 18 May 2014, retrieved 17 December 2009 Fisher, Connie (20 April 1947), "A speech by the Queen on her 21st birthday", The Royal Family, Royal Household, archived from the original on 3 January 2017, retrieved 18 April 2016 Utley, Charles (June 2017), "My grandfather wrote the Princess's speech", The Oldie, archived from the original on 31 May 2022, retrieved 8 September 2022 Brandreth 2004, pp. 132–139; Lacey 2002, pp. 124–125; Pimlott 2001, p. 86 Bond 2006, p. 10; Brandreth 2004, pp. 132–136, 166–169; Lacey 2002, pp. 119, 126, 135 Heald 2007, p. 77 Edwards, Phil (31 October 2000), "The Real Prince Philip", Channel 4, archived from the original on 9 February 2010, retrieved 23 September 2009 Crawford 1950, p. 180 Davies, Caroline (20 April 2006), "Philip, the one constant through her life", The Daily Telegraph, London, archived from the original on 9 January 2022, retrieved 23 September 2009; Brandreth 2004, p. 314 Heald 2007, p. xviii Hoey 2002, pp. 55–56; Pimlott 2001, pp. 101, 137 "No. 38128", The London Gazette, 21 November 1947, p. 5495 "60 Diamond Wedding anniversary facts", Royal Household, 18 November 2007, archived from the original on 3 December 2010, retrieved 20 June 2010 Hoey 2002, p. 58; Pimlott 2001, pp. 133–134 Hoey 2002, p. 59; Petropoulos 2006, p. 363 Bradford 2012, p. 61 Letters Patent, 22 October 1948; Hoey 2002, pp. 69–70; Pimlott 2001, pp. 155–156 Pimlott 2001, p. 163 Brandreth 2004, pp. 226–238; Pimlott 2001, pp. 145, 159–163, 167 Brandreth 2004, pp. 240–241; Lacey 2002, p. 166; Pimlott 2001, pp. 169–172 Brandreth 2004, pp. 245–247; Lacey 2002, p. 166; Pimlott 2001, pp. 173–176; Shawcross 2002, p. 16 Bousfield & Toffoli 2002, p. 72; Bradford 2002, p. 166; Pimlott 2001, p. 179; Shawcross 2002, p. 17 Mitchell 2003, p. 113 Pimlott 2001, pp. 178–179 Pimlott 2001, pp. 186–187 Soames, Emma (1 June 2012), "Emma Soames: As Churchills we're proud to do our duty", The Daily Telegraph, London, archived from the original on 2 June 2012, retrieved 12 March 2019 Bradford 2012, p. 80; Brandreth 2004, pp. 253–254; Lacey 2002, pp. 172–173; Pimlott 2001, pp. 183–185 Pimlott 2001, pp. 297–298 "No. 41948", The London Gazette (Supplement), 5 February 1960, p. 1003 Brandreth 2004, pp. 269–271 Brandreth 2004, pp. 269–271; Lacey 2002, pp. 193–194; Pimlott 2001, pp. 201, 236–238 Bond 2006, p. 22; Brandreth 2004, p. 271; Lacey 2002, p. 194; Pimlott 2001, p. 238; Shawcross 2002, p. 146 "Princess Margaret: Marriage and family", Royal Household, archived from the original on 6 November 2011, retrieved 8 September 2011 Bradford 2012, p. 82 "50 facts about The Queen's Coronation", Royal Household, 25 May 2003, archived from the original on 7 February 2021, retrieved 18 April 2016 Pimlott 2001, p. 207 Briggs 1995, pp. 420 ff.; Pimlott 2001, p. 207; Roberts 2000, p. 82 Lacey 2002, p. 182 Lacey 2002, p. 190; Pimlott 2001, pp. 247–248 Marr 2011, p. 272 Pimlott 2001, p. 182 "The Commonwealth: Gifts to the Queen", Royal Collection Trust, archived from the original on 1 March 2016, retrieved 20 February 2016 "Australia: Royal visits", Royal Household, 13 October 2015, archived from the original on 1 February 2019, retrieved 18 April 2016; Vallance, Adam (22 December 2015), "New Zealand: Royal visits", The Royal Family, Royal Household, archived from the original on 22 March 2019, retrieved 18 April 2016; Marr 2011, p. 126 Brandreth 2004, p. 278; Marr 2011, p. 126; Pimlott 2001, p. 224; Shawcross 2002, p. 59 Campbell, Sophie (11 May 2012), "Queen's Diamond Jubilee: Sixty years of royal tours", The Daily Telegraph, archived from the original on 10 January 2022, retrieved 20 February 2016 Thomson, Mike (15 January 2007), "When Britain and France nearly married", BBC News, archived from the original on 23 January 2009, retrieved 14 December 2009 Pimlott 2001, p. 255; Roberts 2000, p. 84 Marr 2011, pp. 175–176; Pimlott 2001, pp. 256–260; Roberts 2000, p. 84 Lacey 2002, p. 199; Shawcross 2002, p. 75 Altrincham in National Review, quoted by Brandreth 2004, p. 374; Roberts 2000, p. 83 Brandreth 2004, p. 374; Pimlott 2001, pp. 280–281; Shawcross 2002, p. 76 Hardman 2011, p. 22; Pimlott 2001, pp. 324–335; Roberts 2000, p. 84 Roberts 2000, p. 84 "Queen and Canada: Royal visits", Royal Household, archived from the original on 4 May 2010, retrieved 12 February 2012 Bradford 2012, p. 114 Pimlott 2001, p. 303; Shawcross 2002, p. 83 Macmillan 1972, pp. 466–472 Dubois, Paul (12 October 1964), "Demonstrations Mar Quebec Events Saturday", The Gazette, p. 1, archived from the original on 23 January 2021, retrieved 6 March 2010 Bousfield & Toffoli 2002, p. 139 "Royal Family tree and line of succession", BBC News, 4 September 2017, archived from the original on 11 March 2021, retrieved 13 May 2022 "No. 43268", The London Gazette, 11 March 1964, p. 2255 "Aberfan disaster: The Queen's regret after tragedy", BBC News, 10 September 2022, archived from the original on 23 November 2022, retrieved 20 December 2022 "How filming the agony of Aberfan for The Crown revealed a village still in trauma", The Guardian, 17 November 2019, archived from the original on 21 December 2022, retrieved 20 December 2022 Williams, Kate (18 August 2019), "As The Crown returns, watch out for these milestones", The Guardian, archived from the original on 4 July 2021, retrieved 5 July 2021 Bond 2006, p. 66; Pimlott 2001, pp. 345–354 Bradford 2012, pp. 123, 154, 176; Pimlott 2001, pp. 301, 315–316, 415–417 Hoey 2022, p. 58 "Big Crowds in Belgrade Greet Queen Elizabeth", The New York Times, 18 October 1972, archived from the original on 6 June 2022, retrieved 8 September 2022 Bradford 2012, p. 181; Pimlott 2001, p. 418 Bradford 2012, p. 181; Marr 2011, p. 256; Pimlott 2001, p. 419; Shawcross 2002, pp. 109–110 Bond 2006, p. 96; Marr 2011, p. 257; Pimlott 2001, p. 427; Shawcross 2002, p. 110 Pimlott 2001, pp. 428–429 Pimlott 2001, p. 449 Hardman 2011, p. 137; Roberts 2000, pp. 88–89; Shawcross 2002, p. 178 Elizabeth to her staff, quoted in Shawcross 2002, p. 178 Pimlott 2001, pp. 336–337, 470–471; Roberts 2000, pp. 88–89 Heinricks, Geoff (29 September 2000), "Trudeau: A drawer monarchist", National Post, Toronto, p. B12 "Queen's 'fantasy assassin' jailed", BBC News, 14 September 1981, archived from the original on 28 July 2011, retrieved 21 June 2010 Lacey 2002, p. 281; Pimlott 2001, pp. 476–477; Shawcross 2002, p. 192 McNeilly, Hamish (1 March 2018), "Intelligence documents confirm assassination attempt on Queen Elizabeth in New Zealand", The Sydney Morning Herald, archived from the original on 26 June 2019, retrieved 1 March 2018 Ainge Roy, Eleanor (13 January 2018), "'Damn ... I missed': the incredible story of the day the Queen was nearly shot", The Guardian, archived from the original on 1 March 2018, retrieved 1 March 2018 Bond 2006, p. 115; Pimlott 2001, p. 487 Pimlott 2001, p. 487; Shawcross 2002, p. 127 Lacey 2002, pp. 297–298; Pimlott 2001, p. 491 Bond 2006, p. 188; Pimlott 2001, p. 497 Pimlott 2001, pp. 488–490 Pimlott 2001, p. 521 Hardman 2011, pp. 216–217; Pimlott 2001, pp. 503–515; see also Neil 1996, pp. 195–207; Shawcross 2002, pp. 129–132 Thatcher to Brian Walden, quoted in Neil 1996, pp. 207; Neil quoted in Wyatt 1999, diary of 26 October 1990 Campbell 2003, p. 467 Hardman 2011, pp. 167, 171–173 Roberts 2000, p. 101; Shawcross 2002, p. 139 Geddes, John (2012), "The day she descended into the fray", Maclean's (Special Commemorative ed.), p. 72 MacQueen, Ken; Treble, Patricia (2012), "The Jewel in the Crown", Maclean's (Special Commemorative ed.), pp. 43–44 "Queen fulfills a Royal Goal: To visit China", The New York Times, 13 October 1986, archived from the original on 6 June 2022, retrieved 8 September 2022 BBC Books 1991, p. 181 Hardman 2019, p. 437 Bogert, Carroll R. (13 October 1986), "Queen Elizabeth II Arrives In Peking for 6-Day Visit", The Washington Post, ISSN 0190-8286, retrieved 12 October 2022 Lacey 2002, pp. 293–294; Pimlott 2001, p. 541 Hardman 2011, pp. 82–83; Lacey 2002, p. 307; Pimlott 2001, pp. 522–526 Pimlott 2001, pp. 515–516 Pimlott 2001, p. 538 Fisher, Connie (24 November 1992), "Annus horribilis speech", royal.uk, The Royal Household, archived from the original on 3 January 2017, retrieved 18 April 2016 UK Retail Price Index inflation figures are based on data from Clark, Gregory (2017), "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)", MeasuringWorth, retrieved 11 June 2022 "Rich List: Changing face of wealth", BBC News, 18 April 2013, archived from the original on 6 November 2020, retrieved 23 July 2020 Lord Airlie, the lord chamberlain, quoted in Hoey 2002, p. 225; Pimlott 2001, p. 561 "£2m estimate of the Queen's wealth 'more likely to be accurate'", The Times, 11 June 1971, p. 1; Pimlott 2001, p. 401 Pimlott 2001, pp. 519–534 Lacey 2002, p. 319; Marr 2011, p. 315; Pimlott 2001, pp. 550–551 Stanglin, Douglas (18 March 2010), "German study concludes 25,000 died in Allied bombing of Dresden", USA Today, archived from the original on 15 May 2010, retrieved 19 March 2010 Brandreth 2004, p. 377; Pimlott 2001, pp. 558–559; Roberts 2000, p. 94; Shawcross 2002, p. 204 Brandreth 2004, p. 377 Bradford 2012, p. 229; Lacey 2002, pp. 325–326; Pimlott 2001, pp. 559–561 Bradford 2012, p. 226; Hardman 2011, p. 96; Lacey 2002, p. 328; Pimlott 2001, p. 561 Pimlott 2001, p. 562 "Queen Threatens to Sue Newspaper", Associated Press News, London, 3 February 1993, archived from the original on 7 April 2022, retrieved 27 December 2021 "Queen Breaks Wrist in Riding Accident", Associated Press News, 17 January 1994, archived from the original on 31 August 2022, retrieved 1 September 2022 "Elizabeth II to visit Russia in October", Evansville Press, Associated Press, 15 July 1994, p. 2, archived from the original on 6 June 2022, retrieved 8 September 2022; Tomaszewski 2002, p. 22 Sloane, Wendy (19 October 1994), "Not all's forgiven as queen tours a czarless Russia", The Christian Science Monitor, Moscow, archived from the original on 5 September 2022, retrieved 8 September 2022 "British queen in Moscow", United Press International, Moscow, 17 October 1994, archived from the original on 12 March 2022, retrieved 8 September 2022 de Waal, Thomas (15 October 1994), "Queen's Visit: Lifting the Clouds of the Past", Moscow Times "Allo! Allo! Ici the Queen. Who's This?", The New York Times, 29 October 1995, archived from the original on 6 June 2022, retrieved 8 September 2022; "Queen falls victim to radio hoaxer", The Independent, 28 October 1995, archived from the original on 3 June 2022, retrieved 8 September 2022 Brandreth 2004, p. 356; Pimlott 2001, pp. 572–577; Roberts 2000, p. 94; Shawcross 2002, p. 168 Brandreth 2004, p. 357; Pimlott 2001, p. 577 Brandreth 2004, p. 358; Hardman 2011, p. 101; Pimlott 2001, p. 610 Bond 2006, p. 134; Brandreth 2004, p. 358; Marr 2011, p. 338; Pimlott 2001, p. 615 Bond 2006, p. 134; Brandreth 2004, p. 358; Lacey 2002, pp. 6–7; Pimlott 2001, p. 616; Roberts 2000, p. 98; Shawcross 2002, p. 8 Brandreth 2004, pp. 358–359; Lacey 2002, pp. 8–9; Pimlott 2001, pp. 621–622 Bond 2006, p. 134; Brandreth 2004, p. 359; Lacey 2002, pp. 13–15; Pimlott 2001, pp. 623–624 "Indian group calls off protest, accepts queen's regrets", Amritsar, India: CNN, 14 October 1997, archived from the original on 3 May 2021, retrieved 3 May 2021 Burns, John F. (15 October 1997), "In India, Queen Bows Her Head Over a Massacre in 1919", The New York Times, archived from the original on 17 May 2013, retrieved 12 February 2013 Fisher, Connie (20 November 1997), "A speech by The Queen on her Golden Wedding Anniversary", The Royal Family, The Royal Household, archived from the original on 10 January 2019, retrieved 10 February 2017 Gibbs, Geoffrey (27 May 1999), "Welsh crown day with a song", The Guardian, archived from the original on 20 September 2022, retrieved 16 September 2022 Engel, Matthew (2 July 1999), "Something for everyone as Scots at last put history behind them", The Guardian, archived from the original on 14 September 2022, retrieved 14 September 2022 "Queen to visit Southwark on Millennium Eve", London SE1, December 1999, archived from the original on 13 February 2022, retrieved 13 February 2022; "Beacons blaze across UK", BBC News, 31 December 1999, archived from the original on 13 February 2022, retrieved 13 February 2022 Knappett 2016, p. 24 Shawcross 2002, p. 224; Bedell Smith 2017, p. 423 Bond 2006, p. 156; Bradford 2012, pp. 248–249; Marr 2011, pp. 349–350 Brandreth 2004, p. 31 Bond 2006, pp. 166–167 Bond 2006, p. 157 Higham, Nick (14 September 2012), "Analysis: The Royal Family's history of legal action", BBC News, archived from the original on 6 June 2022, retrieved 31 May 2022 Wells, Matt (24 November 2003), "Palace and Mirror settle over fake footman", The Guardian, archived from the original on 1 June 2022, retrieved 22 May 2022 "Queen cancels visit due to injury", BBC News, 26 October 2006, archived from the original on 17 February 2007, retrieved 8 December 2009 Alderson, Andrew (28 May 2007), "Revealed: Queen's dismay at Blair legacy", The Daily Telegraph, archived from the original on 10 January 2022, retrieved 31 May 2010 Alderson, Andrew (27 May 2007), "Tony and Her Majesty: an uneasy relationship", The Daily Telegraph, archived from the original on 10 January 2022, retrieved 31 May 2010 "Queen celebrates diamond wedding", BBC News, 19 November 2007, archived from the original on 13 September 2021, retrieved 10 February 2017 "Historic first for Maundy service", BBC News, 20 March 2008, archived from the original on 12 April 2009, retrieved 12 October 2008 Berry, Ciara (6 July 2010), "A speech by the Queen to the United Nations General Assembly", The Royal Family, Royal Household, archived from the original on 14 November 2018, retrieved 18 April 2016 "Queen addresses UN General Assembly in New York", BBC News, 7 July 2010, archived from the original on 15 July 2010, retrieved 7 July 2010 "Royal tour of Australia: The Queen ends visit with traditional 'Aussie barbie'", The Daily Telegraph, 29 October 2011, archived from the original on 30 October 2011, retrieved 30 October 2011 Bradford 2012, p. 253 "Prince Harry pays tribute to the Queen in Jamaica", BBC News, 7 March 2012, archived from the original on 18 March 2012, retrieved 31 May 2012; "Their Royal Highnesses The Prince of Wales and The duch*ess of Cornwall to Undertake a Royal Tour of Canada in 2012" (Press release), Office of the Governor General of Canada, 14 December 2011, archived from the original on 20 May 2018, retrieved 31 May 2012 "Event News", The Queen's Diamond Jubilee Beacons, archived from the original on 16 November 2018, retrieved 28 April 2016 "UK to name part of Antarctica Queen Elizabeth Land", BBC News, 18 December 2012, archived from the original on 28 January 2013, retrieved 9 June 2019 "Canada's Olympic Broadcast Media Consortium Announces Broadcast Details for London 2012 Opening Ceremony, Friday", PR Newswire, 24 July 2012, archived from the original on 2 April 2015, retrieved 22 March 2015 Brown, Nicholas (27 July 2012), "How James Bond whisked the Queen to the Olympics", BBC News, archived from the original on 19 April 2019, retrieved 27 July 2012 "Queen honoured with Bafta award for film and TV support", BBC News, 4 April 2013, archived from the original on 7 April 2013, retrieved 7 April 2013 Berry, Ciara (9 September 2015), "A speech by The Queen at the Borders Railway, Scotland", The Royal Family, archived from the original on 6 June 2022, retrieved 8 September 2022 "Queen leaves hospital after stomach bug", BBC News, 4 March 2013, archived from the original on 4 March 2013, retrieved 4 March 2013 "Recovering Queen signs Commonwealth charter", BBC News, 11 March 2013, archived from the original on 24 October 2016, retrieved 23 October 2016 "Queen to miss Commonwealth meeting", BBC News, 7 May 2013, archived from the original on 25 January 2021, retrieved 7 May 2013 "Charles to be next Commonwealth head", BBC News, 20 April 2018, archived from the original on 20 April 2018, retrieved 21 April 2018 Collier, Hatty (8 June 2018), "The Queen undergoes eye surgery to remove cataract", Evening Standard, archived from the original on 8 March 2021, retrieved 19 March 2021 – via Yahoo! News Nikkash, Roya (31 March 2019), "Queen slams brakes on driving in public", The Times, archived from the original on 31 March 2019, retrieved 31 March 2019 "Elizabeth Set to Beat Victoria's Record as Longest Reigning Monarch in British History", HuffPost, 6 September 2014, archived from the original on 26 September 2014, retrieved 28 September 2014; Modh, Shrikant (11 September 2015), "The Longest Reigning Monarch Queen Elizabeth II", Philately News, archived from the original on 1 December 2017, retrieved 20 November 2017; Weiss, Hedy (24 August 2017), "Enthralling 'Audience' puts Britain's queen in room with politicians", Chicago Sun-Times, archived from the original on 26 March 2022, retrieved 20 November 2017 "Queen Elizabeth II is now world's oldest monarch", The Hindu, 24 January 2015, archived from the original on 2 January 2020, retrieved 20 November 2017; Rayner, Gordon (23 January 2015), "Queen becomes world's oldest monarch following death of King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia", The Daily Telegraph, archived from the original on 10 January 2022, retrieved 20 November 2017 "Thailand's King Bhumibol Adulyadej dies at 88", BBC News, 13 October 2016, archived from the original on 13 October 2016, retrieved 23 April 2022; Addley, Esther (13 October 2016), "Queen Elizabeth II is longest-reigning living monarch after Thai king's death", The Guardian, archived from the original on 23 April 2022, retrieved 23 April 2022 "Queen Elizabeth II will be the world's oldest head of state if Robert Mugabe is toppled", MSN, 14 November 2017, archived from the original on 15 November 2017, retrieved 20 November 2017 Rayner, Gordon (29 January 2017), "The Blue Sapphire Jubilee: Queen will not celebrate 65th anniversary but instead sit in 'quiet contemplation' remembering father's death", The Daily Telegraph, archived from the original on 10 January 2022, retrieved 3 February 2017 "Queen and Prince Philip portraits released to mark 70th anniversary", The Guardian, Press Association, 20 November 2017, archived from the original on 20 November 2017, retrieved 20 November 2017 Bilefsky, Dan (2 August 2017), "Prince Philip Makes His Last Solo Appearance, After 65 Years in the Public Eye", The New York Times, retrieved 4 August 2017 Friel, Mikhaila (16 March 2020), "The royal family is canceling events because of the coronavirus, and the Queen may be asked to self-isolate for up to 4 months", Insider, archived from the original on 8 September 2022, retrieved 5 July 2021 "Coronavirus: Queen and Prince Philip return to Windsor Castle for lockdown", Sky News, 2 November 2020, archived from the original on 21 June 2021, retrieved 5 July 2021 "Coronavirus: The Queen's message seen by 24 million", BBC News, 6 April 2020, archived from the original on 10 July 2021, retrieved 5 July 2021 "Coronavirus: The Queen's broadcast in full", BBC News, 5 April 2020, archived from the original on 25 August 2021, retrieved 5 July 2021 "VE Day: UK's streets not empty as filled with love, says Queen", BBC News, 8 May 2020, archived from the original on 9 July 2021, retrieved 5 July 2021 Murphy, Victoria (15 October 2020), "Queen Elizabeth Is Joined by Prince William for Her First Public Outing in Seven Months", Town & Country, archived from the original on 24 June 2021, retrieved 5 July 2021 "Queen wears face mask as she marks Unknown Warrior centenary", BBC News, 7 November 2020, archived from the original on 13 August 2021, retrieved 5 July 2021 Busby, Mattha (9 January 2021), "The Queen and Prince Philip receive first dose of Covid vaccine", The Guardian, archived from the original on 9 July 2021, retrieved 5 July 2021; Petit, Stephanie (1 April 2021), "Queen Elizabeth Received Her Second COVID-19 Vaccine Before First Maskless Outing of the Year", People, archived from the original on 8 August 2022, retrieved 8 September 2022 "Prince Philip: After over 70 years by her side, the Queen faces a future without her 'strength and stay'", ITV News, 9 April 2021, archived from the original on 9 April 2021, retrieved 9 April 2021; Elliott, Caitlin (9 April 2021), "Queen will complete her reign in the same sad way as great-great grandmother Queen Victoria", GoodtoKnow, archived from the original on 11 June 2021, retrieved 11 June 2021 Tominey, Camilla (9 April 2021), "Prince Philip's peaceful passing reflects a remarkable life lived in self-effacing dignity", The Telegraph, archived from the original on 10 April 2021, retrieved 11 May 2021 "Prince Philip: The Queen says his death has 'left a huge void' – Duke of York", BBC News, 11 April 2021, archived from the original on 8 September 2022, retrieved 8 September 2022 Abraham, Ellie (17 April 2021), "Social Media Reacts to 'heartbreaking' Image of Queen Sitting Alone at Prince Philip's Funeral", The Independent, archived from the original on 6 July 2022, retrieved 8 September 2022; Hassan, Jennifer (17 April 2021), "Image of Queen Elizabeth II sitting alone at Philip's funeral breaks hearts around the world", The Washington Post, archived from the original on 12 May 2021, retrieved 8 September 2022 "Queen's Christmas message pays tribute to 'beloved' Philip", BBC News, 25 December 2021, archived from the original on 20 February 2022, retrieved 8 September 2022; Ship, Chris (25 December 2021), "Queen remembers 'mischievous twinkle' of Prince Philip in emotional Christmas message", ITV News, archived from the original on 15 February 2022, retrieved 8 September 2022 "Queen's Speech 2021: What can we expect?", BBC News, 10 May 2021, archived from the original on 10 May 2021, retrieved 10 May 2021 Mills, Rhiannon (12 June 2021), "G7 summit: Queen charms prime ministers and presidents", Sky News, archived from the original on 12 June 2021, retrieved 12 June 2021 "Queen gives George Cross to NHS for staff's 'courage and dedication'", BBC News, 5 July 2021, archived from the original on 7 April 2022, retrieved 5 July 2021 Murray, Jessica (12 October 2021), "Queen seen using walking stick for first time in 20 years", The Guardian, archived from the original on 31 March 2022, retrieved 8 September 2022 Taylor, Harry (21 October 2021), "The Queen spent night in hospital after cancelling Northern Ireland visit", The Guardian, archived from the original on 25 February 2022, retrieved 8 September 2022 Lee, Joseph (26 October 2021), "Queen will not attend COP26 climate change summit", BBC News, archived from the original on 1 February 2022, retrieved 8 September 2022 Becky Morton (14 November 2021), "The Queen to miss Remembrance Sunday service", BBC News, archived from the original on 9 March 2022, retrieved 8 September 2022 "Man admits treason after breaking into grounds of Windsor Castle with crossbow 'to kill Queen'", Sky News, 3 February 2023, archived from the original on 3 February 2023, retrieved 3 February 2023 Turner, Lauren (5 February 2022), "Queen holds reception to mark Platinum Jubilee", BBC News, archived from the original on 21 February 2022, retrieved 5 February 2022 Goodey, Emma (5 February 2022), "Accession Day 2022", Royal Family, archived from the original on 20 February 2022, retrieved 8 September 2022 Lee, Dulcie; Durbin, Adam (20 February 2022), "The Queen tests positive for Covid", BBC News, archived from the original on 20 February 2022, retrieved 20 February 2022; Foster, Max; Said-Moorhouse, Lauren (20 February 2022), "Britain's Queen Elizabeth tests positive for Covid-19", CNN, archived from the original on 27 May 2022, retrieved 8 September 2022 Coughlan, Sean (22 February 2022), "Queen cancels virtual engagements as mild Covid persists", BBC News, archived from the original on 4 March 2022, retrieved 7 March 2022 Elston, Laura (23 February 2022), "Queen holds telephone audience with PM despite Covid", The Independent, archived from the original on 7 March 2022, retrieved 7 March 2022 Furness, Hannah (3 March 2022), "The Queen makes 'generous' private donation to Ukraine fund as Royal family shows its support", The Daily Telegraph, archived from the original on 5 March 2022, retrieved 5 March 2022 Hinton, Megan (28 February 2022), "Queen enjoys time with family after recovering from Covid", LBC, archived from the original on 5 March 2022, retrieved 8 September 2022 Waddell, Lily (7 March 2022), "Queen holds in-person meeting with Justin Trudeau in front of blue and yellow flowers", Evening Standard, archived from the original on 7 March 2022, retrieved 7 March 2022 Selby, Jenn (10 April 2022), "Covid left me 'exhausted', Queen tells bereaved couple", The Guardian, archived from the original on 10 April 2022, retrieved 10 April 2022 Lauren, Turner (29 March 2022), "Queen attends Prince Philip memorial service at Westminster Abbey", BBC News, archived from the original on 6 June 2022, retrieved 5 April 2022 Thompson, Eliza (14 March 2022), "Prince Charles Fills in for Queen Elizabeth II at Commonwealth Day Service Alongside Prince William", Us Weekly, archived from the original on 14 March 2022, retrieved 14 March 2022 Adams, Charley (14 April 2022), "Prince Charles stands in for Queen at Maundy Service", BBC News, archived from the original on 6 June 2022, retrieved 8 September 2022 "Queen to miss State Opening of Parliament – Prince of Wales to read speech instead", Sky News, 9 May 2022, archived from the original on 11 June 2022, retrieved 8 September 2022 Furness, Hannah (10 May 2022), "Queen's Speech: Why Prince William is attending State Opening of Parliament", The Telegraph, archived from the original on 12 June 2022, retrieved 8 September 2022 Furness, Hannah (2 June 2022), "The Queen to miss service of thanksgiving after suffering discomfort", The Telegraph, archived from the original on 27 June 2022, retrieved 8 September 2022 Furness, Hannah (5 June 2022), "Queen's Jubilee surprise: A starring role with Paddington Bear (and what she really keeps in her handbag)", The Telegraph, archived from the original on 9 August 2022, retrieved 8 September 2022; "Ma'amalade sandwich Your Majesty?", The Royal Family, 6 June 2022, archived from the original on 31 October 2022, retrieved 14 September 2022 – via YouTube Turner, Lauren (13 June 2022), "Queen Elizabeth II becomes second-longest serving monarch", BBC News, archived from the original on 15 June 2022, retrieved 8 September 2022 Foster, Max; Said-Moorhouse, Lauren (31 August 2022), "Queen won't return to London to appoint new British PM, for first time in her reign", CNN, archived from the original on 2 September 2022, retrieved 2 September 2022 "10 Little known facts about British Prime Ministers", history.co.uk, archived from the original on 10 October 2022, retrieved 10 October 2022 "In last public statement, Queen Elizabeth extended condolences following Saskatchewan stabbing rampage", The StarPhoenix, 8 September 2022, archived from the original on 8 September 2022, retrieved 29 January 2023 Brandreth 2004, pp. 370–371; Marr 2011, p. 395 Mansey, Kate; Leake, Jonathan; Hellen, Nicholas (19 January 2014), "Queen and Charles start to 'job-share'", The Sunday Times, archived from the original on 3 February 2014, retrieved 20 January 2014; Marr 2011, p. 395 Tasker, John Paul (19 September 2022), "Canada is the country it is today because of Queen Elizabeth, Mulroney says at memorial service", CBC News, archived from the original on 13 January 2023, retrieved 15 October 2022 Sherwood, Harriet (9 September 2022), "Queen had no fear of death, says archbishop of Canterbury", The Guardian, archived from the original on 9 September 2022, retrieved 9 September 2022 "Queen's doctors concerned for her health – palace", BBC News, 8 September 2022, archived from the original on 8 September 2022, retrieved 8 September 2022 Davies, Caroline (8 September 2022), "Queen under medical supervision at Balmoral after doctors' concerns", The Guardian, archived from the original on 8 September 2022, retrieved 8 September 2022 "Queen under medical supervision as doctors are concerned for her health. Prince Charles, Camilla and Prince William are currently travelling to Balmoral, Clarence House and Kensington Palace said", Sky News, 8 September 2022, archived from the original on 8 September 2022, retrieved 8 September 2022 Shaw, Neil (8 September 2022), "Duke of York, Princess Anne and Prince Edward all called to Queen's side", Plymouth Live, archived from the original on 8 September 2022, retrieved 8 September 2022 Coughlan, Sean (29 September 2022), "Queen's cause of death given as 'old age' on death certificate", BBC News, archived from the original on 1 October 2022, retrieved 29 September 2022 Prynn, Jonathan (9 September 2022), "Queen died 'with Charles and Anne by side as other royals dashed to Balmoral'", Evening Standard, archived from the original on 9 September 2022, retrieved 17 October 2022 "Queen Elizabeth II has died", BBC News, 8 September 2022, archived from the original on 8 September 2022, retrieved 8 September 2022 Kottasová, Ivana; Picheta, Rob; Foster, Max; Said-Moorhouse, Lauren (8 September 2022), "Queen Elizabeth II dies at 96", CNN, archived from the original on 8 September 2022, retrieved 8 September 2022 "Operation Unicorn: what happens after the Queen's death in Scotland?", The Guardian, 8 September 2022, archived from the original on 8 September 2022, retrieved 4 October 2022 ""Operation Unicorn", Not "London Bridge": The Codename For Queen's Death", NDTV.com, Agence France-Presse, 8 September 2022, archived from the original on 21 September 2022, retrieved 4 October 2022 Silver, Christopher (13 September 2022), "Elizabeth, the last Queen of Scots?", Prospect, archived from the original on 13 September 2022, retrieved 26 September 2022 "Queen Elizabeth died of 'old age', death certificate says", The Guardian, 29 September 2022, archived from the original on 4 December 2022, retrieved 8 December 2022 "The quiet symbolism of the Queen's farewell to Scotland", BBC News, 13 September 2022, archived from the original on 23 September 2022, retrieved 22 September 2022 "Queen's coffin vigil in Edinburgh witnessed by 33,000 people", BBC News, 13 September 2022, archived from the original on 13 September 2022, retrieved 13 September 2022 "In Photos: World Leaders Join Public to Pay Respects to Queen", Voice of America, 18 September 2022, archived from the original on 13 January 2023, retrieved 18 September 2022 "At least 250,000 people lined up to see queen's coffin", AP News, 20 September 2022, archived from the original on 20 September 2022, retrieved 20 September 2022 Therrien, Alex (16 September 2022), "Royals hold sombre watch over Queen's coffin", BBC News, archived from the original on 23 September 2022, retrieved 16 September 2022 Bowden, George; Faulkner, Doug (16 September 2022), "Queen Elizabeth II's grandchildren to observe lying-in-state vigil", BBC News, archived from the original on 22 September 2022, retrieved 16 September 2022 "A History of Royal Burials and Funerals", Westminster Abbey, archived from the original on 12 September 2022, retrieved 11 September 2022 Minelle, Bethany (19 September 2022), "Tens of thousands in London and Windsor as world says goodbye to the Queen at her funeral", Sky News, archived from the original on 19 September 2022, retrieved 19 September 2022 "Your complete guide to the Queen's funeral", BBC News, 19 September 2022, archived from the original on 9 September 2022, retrieved 19 September 2022 Heald, Claire (19 September 2022), "Queen's corgis and pony wait at Windsor Castle as coffin approaches", BBC News, archived from the original on 24 September 2022, retrieved 19 September 2022 "Family say final goodbye as Queen buried next to Philip", BBC News, 19 September 2022, archived from the original on 19 September 2022, retrieved 19 September 2022 "Your complete guide to the Queen's funeral", BBC News, 19 September 2022, archived from the original on 9 September 2022, retrieved 19 September 2022 Hunter, Sophie (19 September 2022), "The State Funeral for Her Majesty The Queen", The Royal Family, archived from the original on 25 September 2022, retrieved 19 September 2022 "State Funeral for Her Majesty The Queen", The Royal Family, archived from the original on 18 September 2022, retrieved 19 September 2022 – via YouTube Walton, John (16 January 1999), "The author of political scandal", BBC News, archived from the original on 18 December 2022, retrieved 19 November 2022 Routledge 1994, p. xiii Dominiczak, Peter (24 September 2014), "David Cameron: I'm extremely sorry for saying Queen 'purred' over Scottish Independence vote", The Daily Telegraph, archived from the original on 9 January 2022, retrieved 8 October 2018 Quinn, Ben (19 September 2019), "David Cameron sought intervention from Queen on Scottish independence", The Guardian, archived from the original on 7 November 2021, retrieved 16 October 2022 "Queen 'will do her job for life'", BBC News, 19 April 2006, archived from the original on 8 December 2008, retrieved 4 February 2007; Shawcross 2002, pp. 194–195 "Our structure", Church of Scotland, 22 February 2010, archived from the original on 25 January 2020, retrieved 23 April 2022 "Queen meets Pope Francis at the Vatican", BBC News, 3 April 2014, archived from the original on 28 May 2017, retrieved 28 March 2017 Fisher, Connie (25 December 2000), "Christmas Broadcast 2000", The Royal Family, Royal Household, archived from the original on 7 May 2016, retrieved 18 April 2016; Shawcross 2002, pp. 236–237 "About The Patron's Lunch", The Patron's Lunch, 5 September 2014, archived from the original on 17 March 2016, retrieved 28 April 2016 Hodge, Kate (11 June 2012), "The Queen has done more for charity than any other monarch in history", The Guardian, archived from the original on 22 February 2021, retrieved 25 February 2021 "80 facts about The Queen", Royal Household, archived from the original on 21 March 2009, retrieved 20 June 2010 Bush 2007, p. 115; Pierce, Andrew (1 October 2007), "Hug for Queen Elizabeth's first corgi", The Daily Telegraph, archived from the original on 10 January 2022, retrieved 21 September 2012 Delacourt, Susan (25 May 2012), "When the Queen is your boss", Toronto Star, archived from the original on 7 March 2013, retrieved 27 May 2012 Bond 2006, p. 22 Bond 2006, p. 35; Pimlott 2001, p. 180; Roberts 2000, p. 82; Shawcross 2002, p. 50 Bond 2006, p. 35; Pimlott 2001, p. 280; Shawcross 2002, p. 76 Bond 2006, pp. 66–67, 84, 87–89; Bradford 2012, pp. 160–163; Hardman 2011, pp. 22, 210–213; Lacey 2002, pp. 222–226; Marr 2011, p. 237; Pimlott 2001, pp. 378–392; Roberts 2000, pp. 84–86 Hardman 2011, pp. 213–214 Hardman 2011, p. 41 Cartner-Morley, Jess (10 May 2007), "Elizabeth II, belated follower of fashion", The Guardian, archived from the original on 7 November 2021, retrieved 5 September 2011 Bond 2006, p. 97; Bradford 2012, p. 189; Pimlott 2001, pp. 449–450; Roberts 2000, p. 87; Shawcross 2002, pp. 1114–117 Bond 2006, p. 117; Roberts 2000, p. 91 Bond 2006, p. 134; Pimlott 2001, pp. 556–561, 570 MORI poll for The Independent newspaper, March 1996, quoted in Pimlott 2001, p. 578; O'Sullivan, Jack (5 March 1996), "Watch out, the Roundheads are back", The Independent, archived from the original on 12 December 2012, retrieved 17 September 2011 Pimlott 2001, p. 578 Bond 2006, p. 134; Pimlott 2001, pp. 624–625 Hardman 2011, p. 310; Lacey 2002, p. 387; Roberts 2000, p. 101; Shawcross 2002, p. 218 "Australia's PM says Elizabeth II should be country's last British monarch", The Guardian, Canberra, Associated Press, 17 August 2010, archived from the original on 27 October 2022, retrieved 16 October 2022 Ireland, Judith (15 July 2017), "We're all Elizabethans now: When Malcolm Turnbull met the monarch", The Sydney Morning Herald, archived from the original on 1 July 2021, retrieved 16 October 2022 Lagan, Bernard (9 March 2021), "Australians in new push to break royal links after Meghan and Harry interview", The Times, Sydney, archived from the original on 2 December 2021, retrieved 16 October 2022 "Vincies vote 'No'", BBC News, 26 November 2009, archived from the original on 10 October 2021, retrieved 26 November 2009 "Monarchy poll", Ipsos MORI, April 2006, archived from the original on 23 January 2021, retrieved 22 March 2015; "Monarchy Survey" (PDF), Populus Ltd, 16 December 2007, p. 9, archived from the original (PDF) on 11 May 2011, retrieved 17 August 2010; "Poll respondents back UK monarchy", BBC News, 28 December 2007, archived from the original on 8 February 2012, retrieved 17 August 2010 "Monarchy/Royal Family Trends – Satisfaction with the Queen", Ipsos MORI, 19 May 2016, archived from the original on 23 January 2021, retrieved 19 September 2017 Mills, Rhiannon (7 September 2019), "Epstein, Andrew and private jets: The royals have had a tumultuous summer", Sky News, archived from the original on 23 September 2021, retrieved 26 September 2021; Gallagher, Sophie; Hall, Harriet (19 May 2021), "How the couple who were supposed to 'modernise the monarchy' turned their backs on it", The Independent, archived from the original on 27 September 2021, retrieved 27 September 2021 Skinner, Giden; Garrett, Cameron (11 January 2022), "Three in five favour Britain remaining a monarchy, although support falls from 2012 peak as more become uncertain", Ipsos, archived from the original on 12 July 2022, retrieved 26 July 2022; "Queen Elizabeth II", YouGov, archived from the original on 14 September 2022, retrieved 26 July 2022; Kirk, Isabelle (1 June 2022), "Platinum Jubilee: where does public opinion stand on the monarchy?", YouGov, archived from the original on 2 June 2022, retrieved 26 July 2022; Ship, Chris (2 June 2022), "Poll: Dramatic decline in support for monarchy in decade since Diamond Jubilee", ITV News, archived from the original on 22 July 2022, retrieved 26 July 2022; Smith, Matthew (13 September 2022), "How have Britons reacted to Queen Elizabeth II's death?", YouGov, archived from the original on 11 October 2022, retrieved 12 October 2022 "The Queen remains the nations' favourite royal as the public associate her with tradition and a positive symbol of Britain at home and abroad", Ipsos MORI, 30 May 2022, archived from the original on 20 September 2022, retrieved 4 October 2022; "Platinum Jubilee: where does public opinion stand on the monarchy?", YouGov, 1 June 2022, archived from the original on 4 October 2022, retrieved 4 October 2022; "Platinum Jubilee: how popular are the royals?", YouGov, 31 May 2022, archived from the original on 2 October 2022, retrieved 4 October 2022; "IPSOS Attitudes to the Royal Family" (PDF), March 2022, archived (PDF) from the original on 16 May 2022, retrieved 20 May 2022; Merrick, Jane (2 June 2022), "Half of Britons won't be celebrating Platinum Jubilee and think Royal Family is out of touch", i, archived from the original on 29 September 2022, retrieved 4 October 2022; "Sky high public approval for the Queen ahead of Platinum Jubilee", Ipsos MORI, 30 May 2022, archived from the original on 9 September 2022, retrieved 4 October 2022; "Has the Queen done a good job during her time on the throne?", YouGov, archived from the original on 24 September 2022, retrieved 4 October 2022 Smith, Matthew (14 December 2021), "World's most admired 2021", YouGov America, archived from the original on 18 April 2022, retrieved 14 December 2021 Riley, Ben (12 February 2016), "Revealed: Damien Hirst's only portrait of the Queen found in government archives", The Daily Telegraph, archived from the original on 10 January 2022, retrieved 10 September 2016 "Elizabeth II", National Portrait Gallery, archived from the original on 3 December 2013, retrieved 22 June 2013 "Marcus Adams", National Portrait Gallery, archived from the original on 15 January 2013, retrieved 20 April 2013 "Coat of Arms: Her Royal Highness The Princess Elizabeth", Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia, archived from the original on 6 November 2013, retrieved 6 April 2013 Berry, Ciara (15 January 2016), "Personal flags", The Royal Family, Royal Household, archived from the original on 7 May 2016, retrieved 18 April 2016 Louda & Maclagan 1999, p. 34; Montgomery-Massingberd 1973, pp. 252, 293, 307; Wagner, A. R. (1940), "Some of the Sixty-four Ancestors of Her Majesty the Queen", Genealogist's Magazine, 9 (1): 7–13 Bibliography Bedell Smith, Sally (2017), Elizabeth the Queen: The Woman Behind the Throne, Penguin Books, ISBN 978-1-4059-3216-5 Bond, Jennie (2006), Elizabeth: Eighty Glorious Years, Carlton Publishing Group, ISBN 1-84442-260-7 Bousfield, Arthur; Toffoli, Gary (2002), Fifty Years the Queen, Dundurn Press, ISBN 978-1-55002-360-2 Bradford, Sarah (2002), Elizabeth: A Biography of Her Majesty the Queen (2nd ed.), Penguin, ISBN 978-0-14-193333-7 Bradford, Sarah (2012), Queen Elizabeth II: Her Life in Our Times, Penguin, ISBN 978-0-670-91911-6 Brandreth, Gyles (2004), Philip and Elizabeth: Portrait of a Marriage, Century, ISBN 0-7126-6103-4 Briggs, Asa (1995), The History of Broadcasting in the United Kingdom, vol. 4, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-212967-8 Bush, Karen (2007), Everything Dogs Expect You to Know, London: New Holland, ISBN 978-1-84537-954-4 Campbell, John (2003), Margaret Thatcher: The Iron Lady, Jonathan Cape, ISBN 0-224-06156-9 Crawford, Marion (1950), The Little Princesses, Cassell & Co. Elliot, Caroline, ed. (1991), The BBC Book of Royal Memories: 1947–1990, BBC Books, ISBN 978-0-563-36008-7 Hardman, Robert (2011), Our Queen, Hutchinson, ISBN 978-0-09-193689-1 Hardman, Robert (2019), Queen of the World, Penguin Random House, ISBN 978-1-78089-818-6 Heald, Tim (2007), Princess Margaret: A Life Unravelled, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, ISBN 978-0-297-84820-2 Hoey, Brian (2002), Her Majesty: Fifty Regal Years, HarperCollins, ISBN 0-00-653136-9 Hoey, Brian (2022), Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II: Platinum Jubilee Celebration: 70 Years: 1952–2022, Rizzoli, ISBN 978-1-84165-939-8 Knappett, Gill (2016), The Queen at 90: A Royal Birthday Souvenir, Pitkin, ISBN 978-0-7509-7031-0 Lacey, Robert (2002), Royal: Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, Little, Brown, ISBN 0-316-85940-0 Louda, Jiří; Maclagan, Michael (1999) [1981], Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe (2nd ed.), London: Little, Brown, ISBN 978-0-316-84820-6 Macmillan, Harold (1972), Pointing the Way 1959–1961, Macmillan, ISBN 0-333-12411-1 Marr, Andrew (2011), The Diamond Queen: Elizabeth II and Her People, Macmillan, ISBN 978-0-230-74852-1 Mitchell, James (2003), "Scotland: Cultural Base and Economic Catalysts", in Hollowell, Jonathan (ed.), Britain Since 1945, Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 109–125, doi:10.1002/9780470758328.ch5, ISBN 978-0-631-20967-6 Montgomery-Massingberd, Hugh, ed. (1973), "The Royal Lineage", Burke's Guide to the Royal Family, London: Burke's Peerage, ISBN 0-220-66222-3 Neil, Andrew (1996), Full Disclosure, Macmillan, ISBN 0-333-64682-7 Nicolson, Harold (1952), King George the Fifth: His Life and Reign, Constable & Co. Petropoulos, Jonathan (2006), Royals and the Reich: The Princes von Hessen in Nazi Germany, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-516133-5 Pimlott, Ben (2001), The Queen: Elizabeth II and the Monarchy, HarperCollins, ISBN 0-00-255494-1 Roberts, Andrew (2000), Fraser, Antonia (ed.), The House of Windsor, Cassell & Co., ISBN 0-304-35406-6 Routledge, Paul (1994), Scargill: The Unauthorized Biography, London: Harper Collins, ISBN 0-00-638077-8 Shawcross, William (2002), Queen and Country, McClelland & Stewart, ISBN 0-7710-8056-5 Tomaszewski, Fiona K. (2002), A Great Russia: Russia and the Triple Entente, 1905–1914, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 978-0-275-97366-7, archived from the original on 13 January 2023, retrieved 5 October 2022 Warwick, Christopher (2002), Princess Margaret: A Life of Contrasts, London: Carlton Publishing Group, ISBN 978-0-233-05106-2 Williamson, David (1987), Debrett's Kings and Queens of Britain, Webb & Bower, ISBN 0-86350-101-X Wyatt, Woodrow (1999), Curtis, Sarah (ed.), The Journals of Woodrow Wyatt, vol. II, Macmillan, ISBN 0-333-77405-1 External linksElizabeth II Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms (1952–2022) Monarchies Antigua and BarbudaAustraliaBahamasBarbadosBelizeCanadaCeylonFijiGambiaGhanaGrenadaGuyanaJamaicaKenyaMalawiMaltaMauritiusNew ZealandNigeriaPakistanPapua New GuineaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSierra LeoneSolomon IslandsSouth AfricaTanganyikaTrinidad and TobagoTuvaluUgandaUnited Kingdom Titles and honours Head of the CommonwealthDefender of the FaithSupreme Governor of the Church of EnglandHead of the British Armed ForcesCommander-in-Chief of the Canadian Armed ForcesLord of MannDuke of NormandyList of things named after Elizabeth IIRoyal Family OrderElizabeth CrossQueen's Official BirthdayFlags Family Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (husband) weddingwedding dresswedding cakeCharles III (son)Anne, Princess Royal (daughter)Prince Andrew, Duke of York (son)Prince Edward, Duke of Edinburgh (son)George VI (father)Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon (mother)Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon (sister)Mountbatten-Windsor family Accession and coronation Proclamation of accessionCoronation Royal guestsParticipants in the processionCoronation chickenCoronation gownMedalHonoursAwardThe Queen's BeastsTreetops HotelMacCormick v Lord Advocate Reign HouseholdPersonality and imagePrime ministersPillar Box WarRhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence Queen of RhodesiaLithgow Plot1975 Australian constitutional crisis Palace lettersMarcus Sarjeant incidentChristopher John Lewis incidentMichael fa*gan incident1987 Fijian coups d'état1992 Windsor Castle fireAnnus horribilisHandover of Hong KongDeath of Diana, Princess of Wales1999 Australian republic referendumPerth AgreementState Opening of Parliament 20212022Operation London BridgeDeath and state funeral reactionsqueuedignitaries at the funeral Jubilees Silver Jubilee EventsMedalHonoursJubilee GardensJubilee lineJubilee Walkway Ruby Jubilee Queen's Anniversary Prize Golden Jubilee Prom at the PalaceParty at the PalaceMedalHonoursThe Odyssey Diamond Jubilee PageantArmed Forces Parade and MusterThames Pageant GlorianaSpirit of ChartwellConcertGibraltar FlotillaMedalHonours Sapphire Jubilee Sapphire Jubilee Snowflake Brooch Platinum Jubilee MedalBeaconsPlatinum Party at the PalacePageantPlatinum Jubilee Celebration: A Gallop Through HistoryTrooping the ColourNational Service of ThanksgivingPlatinum PuddingThe Queen's Green CanopyPlatinum Jubilee Civic HonoursThe Bahamas Platinum Jubilee Sailing RegattaThe Queen's Platinum Jubilee ConcertBig Jubilee ReadQueen's Platinum Jubilee Gardens Commonwealth tours Antigua and BarbudaAustralia official openingsCanadaJamaicaNew ZealandSaint Lucia Ships used HMS Vanguard (23)SS Gothic (1947)HMY Britannia State visits Outgoing State visit to SpainState visit to RussiaState visit to Ireland Incoming Pope Benedict XVIPresident Michael D. HigginsPresident Xi Jinping Depictions Televised addresses Royal address to the nationRoyal Christmas Message Documentaries Royal Journey (1951)A Queen Is Crowned (1953)Royal New Zealand Journey (1954)The Queen in Australia (1954)The Royal Tour of the Caribbean (1966)Royal Family (1969)Elizabeth R: A Year in the Life of the Queen (1992)Monarchy: The Royal Family at Work (2007)The Diamond Queen (2012)Elizabeth at 90: A Family Tribute (2016)The Coronation (2018)Elizabeth: A Portrait in Parts (2022)Elizabeth: The Unseen Queen (2022) Film and television Spitting Image (1984–96); (2020–21)A Question of Attribution (1992 TV)Willi und die Windzors (1996)Her Majesty (2001)The Queen (2006)South Park: The Snuke (2007)The Queen (2009 TV serial)Happy and Glorious (2012)A Royal Night Out (2015)Minions (2015)The Crown (2016–)The Queen's Corgi (2019)2020 Alternative Christmas message (2020)The Prince (2021) Plays A Question of Attribution (1988)The Audience (2013)Handbagged Portraits Conversation Piece at the Royal Lodge, WindsorWattle QueenPietro Annigoni's portraitsReigning QueensHer Majesty Queen Elizabeth II – An 80th Birthday PortraitThe QueenThe Coronation Theatre: Portrait of HM Queen Elizabeth IIBeautiful Portrait, The QueenQueen Elizabeth IIAlgorithm Queen Statues WindsorWinnipegLagosYork Minster Books The Queen and IThe Little PrincessesThe Uncommon ReaderWinnie-the-Pooh Meets the QueenQueen Camilla Songs "God Save the Queen" (Sex Pistols song)"Her Majesty" Stamps Machin series (list)Wilding seriesCastle seriesCanadian domestic rate stampCountry definitives Animals Corgis DookieSusan Horses AureoleBurmeseCarrozzaDunfermlineEstimateHeight of FashionHighclerePall MallWinston Related 21st birthday speech of Princess ElizabethJewels of Elizabeth IIElizabeth lineSagana LodgeVill Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death in 1901. Her reign of 63 years and 216 days was longer than that of any previous British monarch and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. In 1876, the British Parliament voted to grant her the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (the fourth son of King George III), and Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. After the deaths of her father and grandfather in 1820, she was raised under close supervision by her mother and her comptroller, John Conroy. She inherited the throne aged 18 after her father's three elder brothers died without surviving legitimate issue. Victoria, a constitutional monarch, attempted privately to influence government policy and ministerial appointments; publicly, she became a national icon who was identified with strict standards of personal morality. Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840. Their children married into royal and noble families across the continent, earning Victoria the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe" and spreading haemophilia in European royalty. After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, British republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond jubilees were times of public celebration. Victoria died in 1901 at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight, at the age of 81. The last British monarch of the House of Hanover, she was succeeded by her son Edward VII of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.

  • Condition: Usato
  • Condition: In good condition for its age
  • Sub-Type: Binocluars
  • Type: Opera
  • Signed: No
  • Original/Reproduction: Unknown
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: United Kingdom
  • Date: Pre 1940

PicClick Insights PicClick Esclusivo

  • Popolarità - 1 utente che lo osserva, 1.0 nuovi utenti che lo osservano ogni giorno, 1 day for sale on eBay. Normale quantità osservato. 0 venduti, 1 disponibile.
  • Popolarità - Silver Folding Antique Binoculars Vintage II Ship Royal Navy World War Old Retro

    1 utente che lo osserva, 1.0 nuovi utenti che lo osservano ogni giorno, 1 day for sale on eBay. Normale quantità osservato. 0 venduti, 1 disponibile.

  • Miglior Prezzo -
  • Prezzo - Silver Folding Antique Binoculars Vintage II Ship Royal Navy World War Old Retro

  • Venditore - 3.785+ oggetti venduti. 0.4% feedback negativo. Grande venditore con molto buone risposte positive e oltre 50 recensioni.
  • Venditore - Silver Folding Antique Binoculars Vintage II Ship Royal Navy World War Old Retro

    3.785+ oggetti venduti. 0.4% feedback negativo. Grande venditore con molto buone risposte positive e oltre 50 recensioni.

    Feedback recenti
  • Rand Opera Pop Up Binoculars Pocket Size Empire Made Vintage Antique Prop

    EUR 11,82 Compralo Subito 14d 8h

  • Antique Late Victorian Patent Folding Brass Opera Glasses. Pocket Binoculars

    EUR 79,40 Compralo Subito 3d 4h

  • Vintage Brass Folding Binoculars/Opera Glasses/Spyglass with Leather Case Gifts

    EUR 45,43 Compralo Subito 17d 3h

  • Vintage Sport Glass Opera Folding Glasses Binoculars Made in Japan

    EUR 25,97 Compralo Subito 18d 8h

  • Folding Opera Glasses/ Vintage opera binoculars/Opera glasses coated lens Japan

    EUR 36,09 Compralo Subito 8d 3h

  • Antique Asprey La Mignonne Folding Racing Binoculars Opera Glasses Leather Case

    EUR 82,83 Compralo Subito 7d 7h

  • Antique French Opera Glasses Binoculars Paris

    EUR 15,38 0 Offerte 4d 6h

  • Vintage French Theatre Binoculars

    EUR 106,50 Compralo Subito 3d 10h

  • Beautiful Antique Opera Glasses/ Binoculars Brass and Silver

    EUR 202,34 Compralo Subito 21d 23h

  • Vintage Antique M Tauber Leipzig Dresden Germany Opera Binoculars Spares/Repair

    EUR 8,30 Compralo Subito 30d 7h

  • Antique Pair Of Opera Glasses Theatre /Binoculars Bakelite

    EUR 17,74 0 Offerte o Compralo Subito 14h 16m

  • EUR 53,25 Compralo Subito 26d 0h

  • Antique Vintage Extremely Rare Opera/Theater/Marine Glasses/Binoculars

    EUR 20,12 0 Offerte 2d 10h

  • EUR 70,94 Compralo Subito 8d 16h

  • Rand Opera Pop Up Binoculars Pocket Size Empire Made 890885 Vintage Antique Prop

    EUR 17,75 Compralo Subito 4d 8h

  • Vintage Prelude Opera Folding Binoculars 3x25mm Made in Japan Blue

    EUR 11,82 0 Offerte 1d 8h

  • Vintage RAND No. 1 Folding Opera Binoculars. Red Leatherette. Boxed.

    EUR 17,75 Compralo Subito 1d 3h

  • VINTAGE JAPANESE FOLDING GLIDER OPERA GLASSES BINOCULARS 2.5x ORIGINAL BOX

    EUR 53,25 0 Offerte 2d 9h

  • Vintage Rand No1 Pocket Size Opera Binoculars

    EUR 29,58 Compralo Subito 14d 9h

  • Vintage Mignon Binoculars Small Foldable Opera Glasses

    EUR 13,02 0 Offerte 4d 8h

  • Opera Glasses Binoculars Metal Brown Leather Covering Antique Working Order Case

    EUR 20,71 Compralo Subito 2d 3h

  • ANTIQUE LEMAIRE FABt PARIS CASED OPERA GLASSES BINOCULARS VINTAGE THEATRE FRANCE

    EUR 56,80 Compralo Subito 3d 21h

  • Pre War WW1/WW2 Mode's Opera Nr 58 Zar Und Zimmermann Antique/Vintage German

    EUR 22,48 0 Offerte 12h 5m

  • Vintage Mignon Binoculars 60s 3X with telescopic arm, new with chamois lined bag

    EUR 112,41 Compralo Subito 27d 6h

  • Antique Leather Handled Opera Glasses / Art Deco Binoculars / Case / Box

    EUR 53,06 Compralo Subito 23d 1h

  • Vintage folding opera glasses / binoculars. Super compact rare set of lenses

    EUR 72,16 Compralo Subito 28d 8h

  • Delightful Antique Opera Glasses/Binoculars By 'Deraisme' Of Paris c1920

    EUR 29,52 Compralo Subito 13d 6h

  • Vintage Mother of Pearl Theatre Ballet Opera Glasses, Retro 40s 50s Binoculars

    EUR 44,97 Compralo Subito 10d 2h

  • Vintage pair of Rand folding opera binoculars no1

    EUR 14,20 Compralo Subito 18d 21h

  • Vintage Magnifying Glasses Folding Opera Binoculars Fold Flat Prop Decorative

    EUR 71,00 Compralo Subito 4d 21h

Silver Folding Antique Binoculars Vintage II Ship Royal Navy World War Old Retro • EUR 153,82 (2024)
Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Tuan Roob DDS

Last Updated:

Views: 5517

Rating: 4.1 / 5 (42 voted)

Reviews: 81% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Tuan Roob DDS

Birthday: 1999-11-20

Address: Suite 592 642 Pfannerstill Island, South Keila, LA 74970-3076

Phone: +9617721773649

Job: Marketing Producer

Hobby: Skydiving, Flag Football, Knitting, Running, Lego building, Hunting, Juggling

Introduction: My name is Tuan Roob DDS, I am a friendly, good, energetic, faithful, fantastic, gentle, enchanting person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.